Kimuro, Shingo; Kirishima, Akira*; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Akiyama, Daisuke*; Sato, Nobuaki*
Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 132, p.352 - 362, 2019/05
A combination of potentiometry and calorimetry was used for the determination of the thermodynamic quantities of complexation of generic and groundwater humic acid (HA), which was isolated from deep groundwater at Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan, with copper (II) ions and uranyl (VI) ions. The apparent complexation constant of Horonobe HA was independent of the pH, whereas that of generic HA was dependent on the pH. This observation indicates that the polyelectrolyte effect of Horonobe HA is negligible because of its small molecular size. In addition, the effect of the heterogeneity of Horonobe HA was not significant. Moreover, the complexation enthalpy of Horonobe HA was consistent with that of homogeneous poly(acrylic acid), which means the complexation of Horonobe HA was not affected by the functional group heterogeneity . Consequently, the characteristic complexation mechanism of Horonobe HA was revealed based on the determined thermodynamic quantities.
Periez, R.*; Bezhenar, R.*; Brovchenko, I.*; Jung, K. T.*; Kamidaira, Yuki; Kim, K. O.*; Kobayashi, Takuya; Liptak, L.*; Maderich, V.*; Min, B. I.*; et al.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 198, p.50 - 63, 2019/03
A number of marine radionuclide dispersion models were applied to simulate Cs releases from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 over the northwest Pacific. Simulations extended over two years and both direct releases into the ocean and deposition of atmospheric releases on the ocean surface were considered. Dispersion models included an embedded biological uptake model (BUM). Three types of BUMs were used: equilibrium, dynamic and allometric. Model results were compared with Cs measurements in water, sediment and biota. A reasonable agreement in model/model and model/data comparisons was obtained.
Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, X.
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 343, p.178 - 186, 2019/03
A hybrid system combining HTGR and renewable energy is investigated to compensate intermittent renewable energy power generation. A new proposal of using the inventory and bypass control devices already built in the gas turbine, is found to be effective to compensate hourly to daily variation of renewable energy. The reactor thermal power remains at constant full power while the heat output is increased or decreased subject to the need of reactor power generation. On the other hand, the massive heat capacity in the graphite core is shown to be sufficient to compensate renewable energy on a time scale of seconds to minutes and up to about 20% of the rated power output of the nuclear plant. Similarly, no additional control devices are required to perform this control operation. These findings demonstrate the technical and economic potential of the HTGR system to maintain the stability of a grid being incorporated with significant portfolios of renewable energy power generation.
Iwasaki, Sachio; Oka, Makoto; Suzuki, Kei*; Yoshida, Tetsuya*
Physics Letters B, 790, p.71 - 76, 2019/03
We find a novel phenomenon induced by the interplay between a strong magnetic field and finite orbital angular momenta in hadronic systems, which is analogous to the Paschen-Back effect observed in the field of atomic physics. This effect allows the wave functions to drastically deform. We discuss anisotropic decay from the deformation as a possibility to measure the strength of the magnetic field in heavy-ion collision at LHC, RHIC and SPS, which has not experimentally been measured. As an example we investigate charmonia with finite orbital angular momentum in a strong magnetic field. We calculate the mass spectra and mixing rate. To obtain anisotropic wave functions, we apply the cylindrical Gaussian expansion method, where the Gaussian bases to expand the wave functions have different widths along transverse and longitudinal directions in the cylindrical coordinate.
Geoscience Facility Construction Section, Tono Geoscience Center
JAEA-Review 2018-026, 92 Pages, 2019/02
This progress report presents an outline compilation of construction activities, primary tasks performed, construction progress and safety patrol report, in Fiscal Year 2016-2017. The outline of construction activities is a summary based on the scope of work planned in Fiscal Year 2016-2017: the main activities are based on the Tono Geoscience Center weekly reports; and the construction progress is based on the planned and actual schedules. Regarding the actual performance of the construction work of MIU part VII (March 16, 2016 -March 15, 2018) performance carried out from April 1, 2016 until March 15, 2018 is described in this report and the performance started from March 16, 2018 is supposed to be described in progress report of construction work of MIU part VIII.
Nakano, Masanao; Fujita, Hiroki; Mizutani, Tomoko; Nemoto, Masashi; Tobita, Keiji; Kono, Takahiko; Hosomi, Kenji; Hokama, Tomonori; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Matsubara, Natsumi; et al.
JAEA-Review 2018-025, 171 Pages, 2019/02
Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2016 to March 2017. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and were exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.
Information Technology Systems' Management and Operating Office
JAEA-Review 2018-018, 167 Pages, 2019/02
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) conducts research and development (R&D) in various fields related to nuclear power and utilizes computational science and technology in many activities. As shown in the fact that about 20 percent of papers published by JAEA are concerned with R&D using computational science, the supercomputer system of JAEA has become an important infrastructure to support computational science and technology. In FY2017, the system was used for R&D aiming to restore Fukushima (environmental recovery and nuclear installation decommissioning) as a priority issue, and for JAEA's major projects such as R&D of fast reactor cycle technology, research for safety improvement in the field of nuclear energy, and basic nuclear science and engineering research. This report presents a great number of R&D results accomplished by using the system in FY2017, as well as user support, operational records and overviews of the system, and so on.
Morita, Yasuji; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsubata, Yasuhiro
JAEA-Data/Code 2018-017, 32 Pages, 2019/02
Potential radiotoxicity defined as a summation of intake dose was estimated for each actinide element to suppose target of recovery ratio of minor actinide (MA). Importance of each element from the viewpoint of the radiotoxicity was evaluated from the evolution of the radiotoxicity and ratio to the total radiotoxicity. In all the 4 types of spent fuels examined, Am is the most important element. For instance, the potential radiotoxicity of Am accounts for 93% of the total radiotoxicity of actinide elements in HLW produced by reprocessing of spent fuel from pressurized water reactor (PWR). Residual Pu after the recovery of 99.5% in reprocessing still gives contribution that cannot be ignored in radiotoxicity. When the burn-up of the UO fuel in PWR increased, the potential radiotoxicity of actinide elements increased almost in proportion to the burn-up, but in case of MOX fuel in PWR and minor-actinide-recycled MOX fuel in fast reactor, the radiotoxicity of actinide elements increased further. Much consideration is required for the recovery of actinide elements in HLW from different types of fuel.
Asai, Shiho; Ohata, Masaki*; Yomogida, Takumi; Saeki, Morihisa*; Oba, Hironori*; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Horita, Takuma; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 411(5), p.973 - 983, 2019/02
Determination of radiopalladium Pd is required for ensuring the radiation safety of Pd extracted from spent nuclear fuel for recycling or disposal. We employed laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to simplify an analytical procedure of Pd. Pd was separated through selective Pd precipitation reaction from spent nuclear fuel. Laser ablation allows direct measurement of the Pd precipitates, skipping the dissolution and dilution procedure. In this study, Pd in natural Pd standard solution was used as an internal standard, taking advantage of its absence in spent nuclear fuel. The Pd precipitate was uniformly embedded on the surface of the centrifugal filter, forming a microscopically thin flat surface of Pd. The resulting homogeneous Pd layer is suitable for obtaining a stable signal ratio of Pd/Pd. The amount of Pd obtained by LA-ICP-MS corresponds to the values obtained by conventional solution nebulization measurement.
Takahashi, Hiroaki*; Tachi, Yukio
Applied Clay Science, 168, p.211 - 222, 2019/02
Microstructural and mass transport properties of compacted Na- and Cs-montmorillonites with different swelling properties were investigated by combining 3D microstructure analysis using nanofocus X-ray CT and diffusion measurement of HDO. The X-ray CT observations indicated that macropores in the dry state of compacted Na-montmorillonite are filled with gel phases, and the grain sizes of clay particles shifted toward smaller values through the saturation and swelling processes. By contrast, no gel phase and no decrease in the grain and pore volumes were observed for saturated Cs-montmorillonite. The geometrical factors of the macropores including tortuosity and geometric constrictivity of saturated Cs-montmorillonite determined by the X-ray CT was consistent with the corresponding values derived in the HDO diffusion test. In the case of Na-montmorillonite, the larger differences between the geometric factors evaluated by the X-ray CT and the diffusion tests can be explained by the electrostatic constrictivity factor and the additional geometrical factors in gel phase and interlayer that are smaller than the detection limit of the X-ray CT.
Kobayashi, Takanori*; Matsuoka, Leo*; Yokoyama, Keiichi
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, 1150, p.40 - 48, 2019/02
One of important research targets in the development of cesium isotope separation system is design of recovery process of cesium atom. Relevant to this research target, the reaction cross section and reaction rate constant of a cesium exchange reaction through collision of the cesium iodide molecules with cesium atoms are calculated by a quasi-classical trajectory calculation based on a potential energy surface obtained by quantum chemistry calculations. Consequently, the rate constant is calculated to be 3.6 10 cmmolecules, as large as collision rate in the present condition. In addition, slightly positive temperature dependence is observed in the rate constant. This behavior is explained with the long-range attractive force and effect of subsequent dissociation process.
Maeyama, Shinya*; Watanabe, Tomohiko*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Nakata, Motoki*; Nunami, Masanori*
Computer Physics Communications, 235, p.9 - 15, 2019/02
We have implemented the Sugama collision operator in the gyrokinetic Vlasov simulation code, GKV, with an implicit time-integration scheme. The new method is versatile and independent of the details of the linearized collision operator, by means of an operator splitting, an implicit time integrator, and an iterative Krylov subspace solver. Numerical tests demonstrate stable computation over the time step size restricted by the collision term. An efficient implementation for parallel computation on distributed memory systems is realized by using the data transpose communication, which makes the iterative solver free from inter-node communications during iteration. Consequently, the present approach achieves enhancement of computational efficiency and reduction of computational time to solution simultaneously, and significantly accelerates the total performance of the application.
Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 61(2), P. 150, 2019/02
Nuclear Physics A, 982, p.959 - 962, 2019/02
to study extremely dense matter in heavy-ion collisions at 1-19 AGeV/c at a future project of J-PARC (JPARC-HI). We will search for the first order phase boundary and its critical end point in the QCD phase diagram. We also aim at studying the properties of dense matter related to neutron stars and neutron star mergers, in particular the equation of state (EOS). We expect to produce world's highest rate heavy-ion beams of with the ion species from p to U. We design spectrometers based on a large dipole magnet to measure hadrons, dimuons, and hypernuclei. We evaluate some of key performance of the spectrometers based on detailed simulations.
Thwe, Thwe Aung; Terada, Atsuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro
JAEA-Technology 2018-012, 45 Pages, 2019/01
Under long-term storage of nuclear wastes including low- and high-level wastes, hydrogen can be spontaneously generated from corrosion of metal wastes and container wall itself, and from radiolysis of water in the waste. For the sake of hydrogen safety and the risk reduction of environmental contamination, we have started to investigate the behavior and characteristics of hydrogen combustion and explosion in waste vessel. In this report, we performed numerical simulation to investigate the characteristics of methane combustion by applying OpenFOAM. For combustion scenario, FireFoam solver with LES frame was used. As the results, the average temperature increased when the container height and inlet size increased. The simulation of gas diffusion by FireFoam results showed that helium diffused faster than hydrogen and methane. By XiFoame solver, the simulation was performed to obtain flame propagation radius for hydrogen-air premixed flame.
Sakai, Kenji; Oi, Motoki; Takada, Hiroshi; Kai, Tetsuya; Nakatani, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yasuo*; Watanabe, Akihiko*
JAEA-Technology 2018-011, 57 Pages, 2019/01
For safely and efficiently operating a spallation neutron source and a muon target, a general control system (GCS) operates within Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF). GCS administers operation processes and interlocks of many instruments. It consists of several subsystems such as an integral control system (ICS), interlock systems (ILS), shared servers, network system, and timing distribution system (TDS). Although GCS is an independent system that controls the target stations, it works closely with the control systems of the accelerators and other facilities in J-PARC. Since the first beam injection, GCS has operated stably without any serious troubles after modification based on commissioning for operation and control. Then, significant improvements in GCS such as upgrade of ICS by changing its framework software and function enhancement of ILS were proceeded until 2015. In this way, many modifications have been proceeded in the entire GCS during a period of approximately ten years after start of beam operation. Under these situation, it is important to comprehend upgrade history and present status of GCS in order to decide its upgrade plan. This report summarizes outline, structure, roles and functions of GCS in 2017.
Arakawa, Ryoki; Nosaki, Nobuhisa; Hirata, Yuji*
JAEA-Technology 2018-009, 28 Pages, 2019/01
The Naraha Center for Remote Control Technology Development consists of a mock-up test building and a research management building, and various test facilities are installed in them for the decommissioning work after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings. In the test facilities, the robot test pool for the underwater robot can be tested under temperature conditions raised from room temperature to 60C. Then, for the purpose of grasping the temperature distribution inside of the pool and the temperature rising behavior in temperature raising condition, a temperature heating test with room temperature to 60C. (maximum setting temperature) was performed, and as well as an analytical study was performed. This report summarizes the obtained both experimental and analytical studies.
Kajimoto, Ryoichi; Yokoo, Tetsuya*; Matsuura, Masato*
JAEA-Review 2018-024, 78 Pages, 2019/01
The joint user meeting for the neutron spectrometers in the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at J-PARC, "DIRECTION 2018", was held jointly by J-PARC MLF, KEK-IMSS, and CROSS. This meeting was purposed to encourage users' activities and collaborations between users and instruments on six beamlines BL01 (4SEASONS), BL02 (DNA), BL06 (VIN ROSE), BL12 (HRC), BL14 (AMATERAS), and BL23 (POLANO). In this meeting, 14 talks and 21 posters were presented, which reported recent research activities using the instruments, and the current status of the instruments and sample environments. This report compiles the presentation materials and their abstracts.
Shimomura, Yusuke; Sato, Takuya; Fukui, Yasutaka; Kudo, Kenji; Yoshioka, Tatsuji
JAEA-Review 2018-023, 220 Pages, 2019/01
On September 11, 2015, leaky traces of bituminized wastes were confirmed from four drums filled with bituminization in waste packages storage yard (II) of waste management facility in Oarai Research and Development Center. Moreover, even after the subsequent investigation, a leakage trace was found from one bituminous drum on November 10, 2015. Furthermore, on December 2, 2015, there was no a leakage trace in one bituminous drum, however the upper lid was found to be intensely corroded. To investigate the causes and the countermeasures for leakages of bituminized wastes from the drums, we have set up a Work Group to investigate the causes and the countermeasures to leakage traces from the drums. This report is based on "Report on Cause Investigation and Countermeasure of Leakage Trace from the Drum" summarized by this working group, the report was reconstructed including the contents clarified in the subsequent document investigation.
Nuclear Safety Research Center, Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness
JAEA-Review 2018-022, 201 Pages, 2019/01
Nuclear Safety Research Center (NSRC), Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is conducting technical support to nuclear safety regulation and safety research based on the Mid-Long Term Target determined by Japanese government. This report summarizes the research structure of NSRC and the cooperative research activities with domestic and international organizations as well as the nuclear safety research activities and results in the period from JFY 2015 to 2017 on the nine research fields in NSRC; (1) severe accident analysis, (2) radiation risk analysis, (3) safety of nuclear fuels in light water reactors (LWRs), (4) thermohydraulic behavior under severe accident in LWRs, (5) materials degradation and structural integrity, (6) safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, (7) safety management on criticality, (8) safety of radioactive waste management, and (9) nuclear safeguards.