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Journal Articles

Implementation of a gyrokinetic collision operator with an implicit time integration scheme and its computational performance

Maeyama, Shinya*; Watanabe, Tomohiko*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Nakata, Motoki*; Nunami, Masanori*

Computer Physics Communications, 235, p.9 - 15, 2019/02

We have implemented the Sugama collision operator in the gyrokinetic Vlasov simulation code, GKV, with an implicit time-integration scheme. The new method is versatile and independent of the details of the linearized collision operator, by means of an operator splitting, an implicit time integrator, and an iterative Krylov subspace solver. Numerical tests demonstrate stable computation over the time step size restricted by the collision term. An efficient implementation for parallel computation on distributed memory systems is realized by using the data transpose communication, which makes the iterative solver free from inter-node communications during iteration. Consequently, the present approach achieves enhancement of computational efficiency and reduction of computational time to solution simultaneously, and significantly accelerates the total performance of the application.

Journal Articles

Count-loss effect in determination of prompt neutron decay constant by neutron correlation methods that employ two sets of neutron counting systems

Kitamura, Yasunori*; Fukushima, Masahiro; Kitamura, Yasunori*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 125, p.328 - 341, 2019/01

It has been taken for granted that the neutron correlation methods that employ two sets of neutron counting systems, e.g., the covariance-to-mean and the cross-correlation methods, are free from the count-loss effect for determination of the neutron decay constant. It was however found in the present study that these methods overestimate the neutron decay constant under high counting rate conditions. New formulae of these methods were hence obtained on the basis of a rigorous theoretical approach for treating the count-loss process. It is expected that the present formulae work better than conventional ones for determination of the neutron decay constant.

Journal Articles

First-principles calculation of multiple hydrogen segregation along aluminum grain boundaries

Yamaguchi, Masatake; Ebihara, Kenichi; Itakura, Mitsuhiro; Tsuru, Tomohito; Matsuda, Kenji*; Toda, Hiroyuki*

Computational Materials Science, 156, p.368 - 375, 2019/01

The segregation of multiple hydrogen atoms along aluminum (Al) grain boundaries (GBs) and fracture surfaces (FSs) was investigated through first-principles calculations considering the characteristics of GBs. The results indicate that hydrogen segregation is difficult along low-energy GBs. The segregation energy of multiple hydrogen atoms along GBs and FSs and the cohesive energy was obtained for three types of high-energy Al GBs. With increasing hydrogen segregation along the GBs, the cohesive energy of the GB decreases and approaches zero with no decrease in GB segregation energy. The GB cohesive energy decreases in parallel with the volume expansion of the region of low electron density along the GB.

Journal Articles

Development of a stochastic biokinetic method and its application to internal dose estimation for insoluble cesium-bearing particles

Manabe, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Masaki*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(1), p.78 - 86, 2019/01

If an insoluble cesium-bearing particle is incorporated into the human body, the radioactivity will move as a single particle. In this case, it is impossible to estimate the number of disintegrations by considering the average behavior of countless nuclei. Then, a method was developed to simulate the behavior of the particle stochastically; and a biokinetic model was constructed to consider the characteristics of insoluble particles. Combination of the method and the model enables to estimate the number of disintegrations, and consequently the internal doses considering the stochastic behavior of the single cesium particle. We evaluated a probability density function of committed equivalent and effective doses and its 99th percentile value and arithmetic mean by repeating the above described procedure, and compared them to the reference values based on the existing models. As a result, the 99th percentile value of committed effective doses was 70 times the reference value when the number of incorporated particles was one, and consequently the dose level was quite low. When the exposure level is 1 mSv in committed effective dose, the uncertainty originating in the insolubility of cesium particles was negligibly small.

Journal Articles

Influence evaluation of loading conditions during pressurized thermal shock transients based on thermal-hydraulics and structural analyses

Katsuyama, Jinya; Uno, Shumpei*; Watanabe, Tadashi*; Li, Y.

Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 13(4), p.563 - 570, 2018/12

For the structural integrity assessments on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) under pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events, thermal hydraulic (TH) behavior of coolant water is one of the most important influence factors. Configuration of plant equipment and their dimensions, and operator action have large influences on TH behavior. In this study, to investigate the influence of operator action on TH behavior during a PTS event, we developed an analysis model for a typical Japanese plant, and performed TH and structural analyses. Two different operator action times were assumed based on the Japanese and US' rules. From the analysis results, it was clarified that differences in operator action times have a significant effect on TH behavior and loading conditions, that is, following the Japanese rule may lead to lower stresses compared to that when following the US rule because earlier operator action caused lower pressure in the RPV.

Journal Articles

Benchmark study of DFT with Eu and Np M$"o$ssbauer isomer shifts using second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian

Kaneko, Masashi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Miyashita, Sunao*; Nakashima, Satoru*

Hyperfine Interactions, 239(1), p.20_1 - 20_10, 2018/12

We optimized a mixing ratio of exchange energy between pure DFT and exact Hartree-Fock using TPSS exchange-correlation functional to estimate the accurate coordination bonds in f-block complexes by numerically benchmarking with the experimental data of M$"o$ssbauer isomer shifts for $$^{151}$$Eu and $$^{237}$$Np nuclides. Second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian with segmented all-electron relativistically contracted basis set was employed to calculate the electron densities at Eu and Np nuclei, i.e. contact densities, for each five complexes for Eu(III) and Np(IV) systems. We compared the root mean square deviation values of their isomer shifts between experiment and calculation by changing the mixing ratio of Hartree-Fock exchange parameter from 0 to 100 % at intervals of 10 %. As the result, it was indicated that the mixing ratio of 30 and 60 % for Eu and Np benchmark systems, respectively, gives the smallest deviation values. Mulliken's spin population analysis indicated that the covalency in the metal-ligand bonds for both Eu and Np complexes decreases with increasing the Hartree-Fock exchange admixture.

Journal Articles

Estimation of the therapeutic effect of BNCT based on the dose distributions in cellular scale

Sato, Tatsuhiko

Isotope News, (760), p.2 - 5, 2018/12

Recently, we proposed a new model for estimating the biological effectiveness for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) based on the absorbed dose distributions in cellular scale. The model quantitatively highlighted the indispensable need to consider the synergetic effect and the dose dependence of the biological effectiveness in the estimate of the therapeutic effect of BNCT. This paper reviews the basic features of the model.

Journal Articles

Development of novel alumina adsorbent applying mesoporous process

Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi*; Yamauchi, Yusuke*; Saptiama, I.*; Ariga, Katsuhiko*; Hatano, Kentaro*; Kumada, Hiroaki*; Fujita, Yoshitaka; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko

Isotope News, (760), p.15 - 18, 2018/12

核医学検査薬として最も多く使用されている$$^{99m}$$Tcの原料となる$$^{99}$$Moは我が国ではすべて輸入に頼っており、安定供給のため$$^{99}$$Mo/$$^{99m}$$Tcの国産化が望まれている。天然Moを中性子照射して$$^{99}$$Moを生成することは技術的には可能であるが、比放射能が低いことから、現在$$^{99}$$Mo/$$^{99m}$$TcジェネレータのMo吸着剤として用いられているアルミナの吸着性能向上が期待される。そこで、本研究ではメソポーラス技術を適用して表面積を増加させた新規アルミナの開発を進めている。アルミナは2通りの方法で合成し、一方はアルミナ-シリカ複合体でアルミナ/シリカ分子比及び焼成温度を段階的に変化させて合成する方法、一方がエタノール処理で焼成時間及び焼成温度を段階的に変化させて合成する方法である。本解説は、これらのメソポーラス加工を応用した新規アルミナの研究成果についてまとめたものである。

Journal Articles

Quasielastic neutron scattering of brucite to analyse hydrogen transport on the atomic scale

Okuchi, Takuo*; Tomioka, Naotaka*; Purevjav, N.*; Shibata, Kaoru

Journal of Applied Crystallography, 51, p.1564 - 1570, 2018/12

It is demonstrated that quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) is a novel and effective method to analyse atomic scale hydrogen transport processes occurring within a mineral crystal lattice. The method was previously characterized as sensitive for analysing the transport frequency and distance of highly diffusive hydrogen atoms or water molecules in condensed matter. Here are shown the results of its application to analyse the transport of much slower hydrogen atoms which are bonded into a crystal lattice as hydroxyls. Two types of hydrogen transport process were observed in brucite, Mg(OH)$$_{2}$$ : a jump within a single two-dimensional layer of the hydrogen lattice and a jump into the next nearest layer of it. These transport processes observed within the prototypical structure of brucite have direct implications for hydrogen transport phenomena occurring within various types of oxides and minerals having layered structures.

Journal Articles

International challenge to model the long-range transport of radioxenon released from medical isotope production to six Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring stations

Maurer, C.*; Bar$'e$, J.*; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.*; Crawford, A.*; Eslinger, P. W.*; Seibert, P.*; Orr, B.*; Philipp, A.*; Ross, O.*; Generoso, S.*; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 192, p.667 - 686, 2018/12

 Times Cited Count:1

It is very important to understand the impact for CTBT stations caused by radioxenon emitted from medical isotope production facilities for detection of underground nuclear tests. Predictions of the impact on six CTBT radionuclide stations in the Southern Hemisphere of radioxenon emitted from the medical isotope production facility in Australia were carried out by participants from ten nations using ATM (Atmospheric Transport Modeling) based on the emission data of radioxenon from this facility, as part of study on impact of radioxenon emitted from medical isotope production facilities on CTBT radionuclide stations.

Journal Articles

Distribution and fate of $$^{129}$$I in the seabed sediment off Fukushima

Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Sato, Yuhi*; Suzuki, Takashi; Kuwabara, Jun; Nakanishi, Takahiro

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 192, p.208 - 218, 2018/12

From August 2011 to October 2013, the concentration of iodine-129 ($$^{129}$$I) in the seabed sediment collected from 26 stations located within 160 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was estimated. The concentrations of $$^{129}$$I in seabed sediment off Fukushima in 2011 ranged between 0.02 and 0.45 mBq/kg. Although iodine is a biophilic element, the accident-derived radioiodine negligibly affects the benthic ecosystem. Until October 2013, a slightly increased activity of $$^{129}$$I in the surface sediment in the shelf-edge region (bottom depth: 200-400 m) was observed. The increase of the $$^{129}$$I concentrations in the shelf-edge sediments was affected by the (1) transport of $$^{129}$$I-bound particles from the land through rivers and (2) re-deposition of $$^{129}$$I desorbed from the contaminated coastal sediment to the shelf-edge sediments, which were considered to be dominant processes.

Journal Articles

Primary radiation damage; A Review of current understanding and models

Nordlund, K.*; Zinkle, S. J.*; Sand, A. E.*; Granberg, F.*; Averback, R. S.*; Stoller, R. E.*; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, L.*; Banhart, F.*; Weber, W. J.*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 512, p.450 - 479, 2018/12

Scientific understanding of any kind of radiation effects starts from the primary damage. We consider the extensive experimental and computer simulation studies that have been performed over the past several decades on what the nature of the primary damage is. We review both the production of crystallographic or topological defects in materials as well as radiation mixing, i.e. the process where atoms in perfect crystallographic positions exchange positions with other ones in non-defective positions. We also consider the recent effort to provide alternatives to the current international standard for quantifying this energetic particle damage, the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens displacements per atom (NRT-dpa) model for metals. We present in detail new complementary displacement production estimators ("athermal recombination corrected dpa": arc-dpa) and atomic mixing ("replacements per atom": rpa) functions that extend the NRT-dpa, and discuss their advantages and limitations.

Journal Articles

Coupled analysis of fuel debris distribution and recriticality by both multiphase/multicomponent flow and continuous energy neutron transport Monte Carlo simulations

Yamashita, Susumu; Tada, Kenichi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Suyama, Kenya

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 17(3/4), p.99 - 105, 2018/12

In order to reveal melt relocation behaviors of core internals phenomenologically and to reduce the uncertainties of the melt relocation analysis in existing SA analysis codes, in JAEA, the numerical simulation code for melt relocation and accumulation behaviors based on computational fluid dynamics named JUPITER has been developed. In this paper, to consider the estimation method for fuel debris composition and its re-criticality, we performed the melt accumulating and spreading simulation to the pedestal region by JUPITER and also performed re-criticality analysis by Monte Carlo Codes for Neutron Transport Calculations based on Continuous Energy and Multi-group Methods (MVP) using detailed fuel debris composition data obtained by JUPITER. From the coupled analysis on fuel debris distribution by JUPITER and MVP, we had prospects for a detailed possibility of re-criticality of fuel debris with detailed fuel debris distribution.

Journal Articles

Development of safety design guideline of structures, systems and components of Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

Okano, Yasushi

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 60(12), p.764 - 769, 2018/12

JAEA has developed the second safety design guidelines report, "Safety Design Guidelines on Structures, Systems and Components" for Generation-IV SFR system, following the previously published SFR Safety Design Criteria and the first SFR Safety Design Guidelines report and with the reviews by a technical committee under Atomic Energy Society of Japan. This article explains about 14 key points on reactor core system, coolant system, and containment system and also current consistency of international SFR designs to the safety design guidelines.

Journal Articles

Mechanism of phase transfer of uranyl ions; A Vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy study on solvent extraction in nuclear reprocessing

Kusaka, Ryoji; Watanabe, Masayuki

Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 20(47), p.29588 - 29590, 2018/12

Mechanistic understanding of solvent extraction of uranyl ions (UO$$_{2}$$$$^{2+}$$) by tributyl phosphate (TBP) will help improve the technology for the treatment and disposal of spent nuclear fuels. So far, it has been believed that uranyl ions in the aqueous phase are adsorbed to a TBP-enriched organic/aqueous interface, form complexes with TBP at the interface, and are extracted into the organic phase. Here we show that uranyl-TBP complex formation does not take place at the interface using vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy and propose an alternative extraction mechanism that uranyl nitrate, UO$$_{2}$$(NO$$_{3}$$)$$_{2}$$, passes through the interface and forms the uranyl-TBP complex, UO$$_{2}$$(NO$$_{3}$$)$$_{2}$$(TBP)$$_{2}$$, in the organic phase.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of residual stress relaxation in a rolled joint by neutron diffraction

Hayashi, Makoto*; Root, J. H.*; Rogge, R. B.*; Xu, P. G.

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 2(4), p.21_1 - 21_16, 2018/12

The rolled joint of pressure tube, consisting of three axial symmetric parts, modified SUS403 stainless steel, Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube and Inconel-718, has been examined by neutron diffraction for residual stresses. It was heat treated at 350$$^{circ}$$C for 30, 130 and 635 hours to simulate the thermal aging of the rolled joint over the lifetime of the advanced thermal reactor at 288$$^{circ}$$C for 1, 5 and 30 years. The crystal lattice strains at various locations in the rolled joint before and after the aging treatments were measured by neutron diffraction and the residual stress distribution in the rolled joint was evaluated by using the Kroner elastic model and the generalized Hooke's law. In the crimp region of the rolled joint, it was found that the aging treatment had weak effect on the residual stresses in the Inconel and the SUS403. In the non-aged Zr-2.5Nb, the highest residual stresses were found near its interface with the SUS430. In the Zr-2.5Nb in the crimp region near its interface with the SUS430, the average compressive axial stress was -440 MPa, having no evident change during the long-time aging. In the Zr-2.5Nb outside closest to the crimp region, the tensile axial and hoop stresses were relieved during the 30 hours aging. The hoop stresses in the crimp region evolved from an average tensile stress of 80 MPa to an average compressive stress of 230 MPa after the 635 hours aging, suggesting that the rolled joint had a good long-term sealing ability against the leakage of high temperature water.

Journal Articles

Online chemical adsorption studies of Hg, Tl, and Pb on SiO$$_{2}$$ and Au surfaces in preparation for chemical investigations on Cn, Nh, and Fl at TASCA

Lens, L.*; Yakushev, A.*; D$"u$llmann, Ch. E.*; Asai, Masato; Ballof, J.*; Block, M.*; David, H. M.*; Despotopulos, J.*; Di Nitto, A.*; Eberhardt, K.*; et al.

Radiochimica Acta, 106(12), p.949 - 962, 2018/12

Online gas-solid adsorption studies with single atom quantities of Hg, Tl, and Pb on SiO$$_{2}$$ and Au surfaces were carried out using short-lived radioisotopes with half-lives in the range of 4-49 s. This is a model study to measure adsorption enthalpies of superheavy elements Cn, Nh, and Fl. The short-lived isotopes were produced and separated by the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA at GSI. The products were stopped in He gas, and flushed into gas chromatography columns made of Si detectors whose surfaces were covered by SiO$$_{2}$$ or Au. The short-lived Tl and Pb were successfully measured by the Si detectors with the SiO$$_{2}$$ surface at room temperature. On the other hand, the Hg did not adsorb on the SiO$$_{2}$$ surface, but adsorbed on the Au surface. The results demonstrated that the adsorption properties of short-lived Hg, Tl, and Pb could be studied with this setup, and that this method is applicable to the experiment for Cn, Nh, and Fl.

JAEA Reports

Calculations of Tritium Recoil Release from Li and U Impurities in Neutron Reflectors (Joint research)

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kenzhina, I.*; Okumura, Keisuke; Ho, H. Q.; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*

JAEA-Technology 2018-010, 33 Pages, 2018/11

JAEA-Technology-2018-010.pdf:2.58MB

As a part of study on the mechanism of tritium release to the primary coolant in research and testing reactors, tritium recoil release rate from Li and U impurities in the neutron reflector made by beryllium, aluminum and graphite were calculated by PHITS code. On the other hand, the tritium production from Li and U impurities in beryllium neutron reflectors for JMTR and JRR-3M were calculated by MCNP6 and ORIGEN2 code. By using both results, the amount of recoiled tritium from beryllium neutron reflectors were estimated. It is clear that the amount of recoiled tritium from Li and U impurities in beryllium neutron reflectors are negligible, and 2 and 5 orders smaller than that from beryllium itself, respectively.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center; April 1, 2017 to March 31, 2018

Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center

JAEA-Review 2018-015, 78 Pages, 2018/11

JAEA-Review-2018-015.pdf:3.85MB

Since JAEA is a designated public institution, an agency dealing with an emergency situation in cooperation with the national government under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act, it has the responsibility of providing technical assistance to the national government in case of a nuclear emergency. The Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center, NEAT, is the main center of the technical assistance in case of emergency, and dispatches experts of JAEA and supplies equipment and materials to the national government for emergency. In normal time, the NEAT provides the technical assistance such as the exercises and training courses concerning nuclear preparedness and response to emergency responders including the national government officers in addition to JAEA staff members. This report introduces the results of activities in FY2017 conducted by NEAT.

JAEA Reports

Data survey and compilation of material property tables of irradiated stainless steel for evaluation of radiation effects on structural material properties of core internals in boiling water reactors (Contract Research)

Kasahara, Shigeki; Fukuya, Koji*; Koshiishi, Masato*; Fujii, Katsuhiko*; Chimi, Yasuhiro

JAEA-Review 2018-012, 180 Pages, 2018/11

JAEA-Review-2018-012.pdf:10.71MB

For structural integrity assessment of reactor internals of light water reactors, it is important to evaluate and predict the property changes of structural materials, based on existing data obtained from austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons. Compilation of the data into tables is valuable for discussing the representative or the most probable values of the properties applied to the assessment. In the process of the data compilation, the data must be distinguished clearly in consideration of different service conditions of core internals of boiling water reactors (BWR) and pressurized water reactors. Main objective of this work is to provide material property tables of irradiated austenitic stainless steel which will be applicable for assessment of structural integrity of core internals of BWRs. To compile the table, published literature reporting irradiated stainless steel data were surveyed and screened by considering the service conditions of BWRs. In addition to the data, various parameters for the data evaluation, e.g. chemical compositions and pre-treatments of the materials, irradiation and examination conditions, were extracted from the literature, and listed into the tables.

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