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1
Swelling pressure and leaching behaviors of synthetic bituminized waste products with various salt contents under a constant-volume condition
Irisawa, Keita; Meguro, Yoshihiro
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(3), p.365 - 372, 2017/03
We investigated the swelling pressure of synthetic bituminized waste products (BWPs) and the amount of Na$$^{+}$$ in the leachate from them under a constant-volume condition when the BWPs were in contact with water to understand influences of salt content on the surrounding environments after disposal of radioactive BWPs in a geological repository. The observation of the cross section of the synthetic BWP specimens revealed that micropores, which were formed after soluble salts leached out from the specimens, shrank and deformed near the surface of the specimens. The salt content in the synthetic BWP specimens depended on the amount of water taken up, indicating that an increase in the amount of water led to increases in the swelling pressure and the cumulative amount of Na$$^{+}$$ in the leachate. It was found that the shrinkage and deformation of the micropores near the surface of the synthetic BWP specimens that arose under the constant-volume condition significantly influenced increases in the swelling pressure and cumulative amount of Na$$^{+}$$ in the leachate.
2
Determination of dissolved natural thorium and uranium in Horonobe and Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory groundwater and its thermodynamic analysis
Sasaki, Takayuki*; Kokami, Takayuki*; Kobayashi, Taishi*; Kirishima, Akira*; Murakami, Hiroaki; Amano, Yuki; Mizuno, Takashi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Kazuya
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(3), p.373 - 381, 2017/03
Trace amounts of natural thorium and uranium in deep groundwater were investigated at two underground research laboratories situated at Horonobe and Mizunami, Japan. The groundwater was sampled from underground boreholes, and the colloid contribution was checked by in situ two size-fractionated ultrafiltration systems. A decrease in the concentration after in situ filtration suggested the presence of natural colloids and suspended matter that were carriers of a portion of the elements. The result of the Th and U concentrations in groundwater after 10 kDa filtration was analyzed thermodynamically using existing hydrogeological and geochemical data such as the mineral components in the groundwater at a given pH, ionic strength, concentration of co-existing ions, redox potential, and solid phase assumed. A crystalline solid phase made the solubility very low compared with that of the amorphous phase, and the solubility agreed well with the concentrations measured.
3
Development of methods for recovering uranium from sludge-like uranium generated in decontamination of metal wastes
Ohashi, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yoshio; Tsunashima, Yasumichi; Ikeda, Yasuhisa*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(3), p.382 - 390, 2017/03
Sludge-like uranium wastes (SUWs) have been generated with neutralization of acidic aqueous solutions used for decontamination of metal wastes containing a large amount of iron. We have examined the method for recovering uranium from such SUWs using ${{it N-cyclohexyl}}$-2-pyrrolidone (NCP) as a precipitate. As a result, it was found that precipitation ratios (PRs) of uranium in the solutions prepared by dissolving SUWs in HNO$$_{3}$$ is 97.7% at [NCP]/[U(VI)] = 20, and that the PRs of iron, aluminum, fluorine, and sulfate species are less than 1%. This indicates that uranium species are precipitated selectively. The content ratios of U, Fe, Ca, F, and S in the materials after calcining precipitates obtained at [NCP]/[U(VI)] = 20 were in accordance with the conditions of uranium ore concentrate. From these results, it is expected that highly purified uranium can be efficiently recovered from SUWs by using NCP as the precipitant.
4
Technological study about a disposal measures of low-level radioactive waste including uranium and long-half-life radionuclides
Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sasaki, Toshihisa*; Nakamura, Yasuo*; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki
JAEA-Technology 2016-036, 126 Pages, 2017/02
At the Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal Project Department Sector of Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste Management, we performed the technological study about the disposal measures of the low-level radioactive waste targeted for uranium-bearing waste and intermediate depth disposal-based waste occurring from the process of the nuclear fuel cycle.
5
Study on engineering technologies in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (FY 2015); Development of recovery and mitigation technology on excavation damage (Contract Research)
Fukaya, Masaaki*; Takeda, Nobufumi*; Miura, Norihiko*; Ishida, Tomoko*; Hata, Koji*; Uyama, Masao*; Sato, Shin*; Okuma, Fumiko*; Hayagane, Sayaka*; Matsui, Hiroya; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2016-035, 153 Pages, 2017/02
The researches on engineering technology in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project in FY2016, detailed investigations of the ( mechanical )behaviors of the plug and the rock mass around the reflood tunnel through ongoing reflood test were performed as part of (5) development of technologies for restoration and/or reduction of the excavation damage. As the result, particularly for the temperature change of the plug, its analytical results agree fairly well agree with the measurement ones. This means cracks induced by temperature stress can be prevented by the cooling countermeasure works reviewed in designing stage. In addition, for the behaviors of the plug and the bedrock boundary after reflooding the reflood tunnel, comparison between the results obtained by coupled hydro-mechanical analysis (stress-fluid coupled analysis ) with the ones by several measurements, concluded that the model established based on the analysis results is generally appropriated.
6
Preliminary 3-dimensional analysis of groundwater flow in the surrounding environment of near surface disposal facility
Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei*; Totsuka, Masayoshi; Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya
JAEA-Technology 2016-032, 117 Pages, 2017/02
JAEA has been planning to implement near surface disposal of low level waste generated from research, medical, and industrial facilities. JAEA plans to carry out 3d analysis of groundwater flow in geological model around the disposal site because of development of migration assessment modeling of radioactivity materials in the site. In the safety demonstration test in JAEA, 3d analysis of groundwater flow was carried out on 1999. The analysis was calculated by using the code "3D-SEEP". But it is necessary to improve the conditions of the model in the analysis. Therefore, we improved the geological model which had been developed carried out 3d analysis of groundwater flow by using the current 3D-SEEP for the specified disposal site in the future. From the result, we expect that 3d analysis of groundwater flow in the environment around the specified near surface disposal site will be able to be sufficiently conducted by developing an appropriate model for the disposal site.
7
Proceedings of information and opinion exchange conference on geoscientific study, 2016
Nishio, Kazuhisa*; Iyatomi, Yosuke
JAEA-Review 2016-031, 75 Pages, 2017/02
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) at Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) has been conducting geoscientific study in order to establish a scientific and technological basis for the geological disposal of HLW. Technical information of the result on the geoscientific study conducted at TGC is provided at the annual Information and Opinion Exchange Conference on Geoscientific Study of TGC for exchanging opinions with researchers and engineers from universities, research organizations and private companies. This document compiles the research presentations and posters of the conference in Mizunami on October 3, 2016.
8
Excavation of shafts and research galleries at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (construction work of MIU part VI); Construction progress report, fiscal year 2014-2015
Geoscience Facility Construction Section, Tono Geoscience Center
JAEA-Review 2016-027, 190 Pages, 2017/02
This progress report presents an outline compilation of construction activities, primary tasks performed, construction progress and safety patrol report, in Fiscal Year 2014-2015. The outline of construction activities is a summary based on the scope of work planned in Fiscal Year 2014-2015: the main activities are based on the Tono Geoscience Center weekly reports; and the construction progress is based on the planned and actual schedules. Regarding the actual performance of the construction work of MIU part VI (March 16, 2014 -March 15, 2016) performance carried out from April 1, 2014 until March 15, 2016 is described in this report and the performance started from March 16, 2016 is supposed to be described in progress report of construction work of MIU part VII.
9
Annual report for research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste in fiscal year 2015
Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Umeda, Koji*; Yasue, Kenichi; Kokubu, Yoko; Niwa, Masakazu; Asamori, Koichi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Fujita, Natsuko; Shimizu, Mayuko; et al.
JAEA-Research 2016-023, 91 Pages, 2017/02
This annual report documents the progress of research and development (R&D) in the 1st fiscal year during the JAEA 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2015-2021) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. The planned framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. In this paper, the current status of R&D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized.
10
Interaction of rare earth elements and components of the Horonobe deep groundwater
Kirishima, Akira*; Kuno, Atsushi*; Amamiya, Hiroki; Kubota, Takumi*; Kimuro, Shingo*; Amano, Yuki; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Mizuno, Takashi; Sasaki, Takayuki*; et al.
Chemosphere, 168, p.798 - 806, 2017/02
For better understanding of the migration behavior of minor actinides (MA) in deep groundwater, the interaction of doped rare earth elements (REEs) and components in Horonobe deep groundwater was studied. Appx. 10 ppb of rare earth elements, i.e., Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm and Yb were doped to the sample groundwater collected from a packed sections in borehole drilled from 140 m depth experiment drift of Horonobe underground research laboratory (URL), Hokkaido, Japan. Then, that groundwater was sequentially filtrated by 0.2 micron pore filter, 10 kDa, 3 kDa and 1 kDa of nominal molecular weight limit (NMWL) ultrafilters by keeping inert condition. After that, the filtrate solutions were analyzed by ICP-MS to determine the concentrations of retained REEs at each filtration steps, while the used filters were analyzed by the neutron activation analysis (NAA) and TOF-SIMS element mapping to know the amount and chemical speciation of trapped fraction of the REEs on each filter. A remarkable relation between the retention ratios of REEs in the filtrate solutions and the ionic radius was observed, i.e., smaller rare earth element solves more in liquid phase under the Horonobe groundwater condition. NAA and TOF-SIMS analyses revealed that certain portions of REEs were trapped by 0.2 micron pore filters as rare earth phosphates which corresponded with the predicted predominant species by a chemical equilibrium calculation for the Horonobe groundwater condition, while small portions of colloidal REEs were trapped by 10 kDa and 3 kDa NMWL ultrafilters. The result suggested that phosphate anion plays an important role in the chemical behavior of REEs in saline (seawater based) groundwater, which could be referred for the prediction of migration behavior of trivalent actinide released from the repository of radioactive waste in far future.
11
Application of probability generating function to the essentials of nondestructive nuclear materials assay system using neutron correlation
Hosoma, Takashi
JAEA-Research 2016-019, 53 Pages, 2017/01
Application of probability generating function for nondestructive nuclear materials assay system was studied. First, high-order neutron correlations were derived algebraically up to septuplet and basic characteristics of the correlations were investigated. It was found that higher-order correlation increases rapidly in response to the increase of leakage multiplication, crosses and leaves lower-order correlations behind, when leakage multiplication is $$>$$ 1.3 that depends on detector efficiency and counter setting. Next, fission rates and doubles count rates by fast neutron and by thermal neutron in their coexisting system were derived algebraically. It was found that the number of induced fissions per unit time by fast neutron and by thermal neutron, the number of induced fissions ($$<$$ 1) by one source neutron, and individual doubles count rates were possible to be estimated from Rossi-alpha combined distribution and measured ratio of each area obtained by differential die-away self-interrogation and conventional assay data.
12
Research of the tasks on risk communication enforcement (Contract research)
Tanaka, Masaru*; Aoyama, Isao*; Ishizaka, Kaoru*; Ohata, Yuki*; Fukuike, Iori*; Miyagawa, Hiroshi*; Ishimori, Yuu
JAEA-Research 2016-017, 76 Pages, 2017/01
From 1955 to 2001, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) carried out research and development projects related to uranium exploration, mining refining, conversion and enrichment at/around Ningyo-toge in Japan. Subsequently, JAEA has been conducting projects related to decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and remediation of closed mine sites. JAEA had opportunities of communication with local stakeholders through the projects. Consensus building with local stakeholders and maintain it for over decades are important challenges for JAEA Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center. For this aim, similar domestic case were investigated and compared, and evaluated about required measures for long term relationship with local stakeholder.
13
The Role of low-temperature organic matter diagenesis in carbonate precipitation within a marine deposit
Miyakawa, Kazuya; Ishii, Eiichi; Hirota, Akinari*; Komatsu, Daisuke*; Ikeya, Kosuke*; Tsunogai, Urumu*
Applied Geochemistry, 76, p.218 - 231, 2017/01
炭酸塩はその形成時に、地下水水質の変遷履歴などの古水理地質情報を記録している可能性があり、地下に形成された炭酸塩脈は、過去の環境の変遷を知る手掛かりになる。本研究では、北海道北部の新第三系海成堆積岩である声問層と稚内層中に見られる炭酸塩脈の産状のコントラストについて、炭酸の供給源の観点からその成因を検討した。炭酸塩脈は、珪藻質泥岩の声問層中にはほとんど見られないが、珪質泥岩の稚内層中には見られる。地下水中に溶存している多量のメタンは微生物活動による二酸化炭素還元反応によって形成されていることが、同位体比分析の結果から分かった。岩盤中の全有機物量は、声問層では深度の増加とともに小さくなるが、稚内層では深度によらず一定であることが分かった。これはこれらの地層境界が、有機物の続成作用区分としてダイアジェネシス期からカタジェネシス期への変化点に相当することを示唆しており、ガスや炭酸塩の炭素同位体比もまた、稚内層中では深度とともに急に重くなっていることが分かった。以上のことから、次のような炭酸塩脈の形成プロセスが考えられる。有機物の続成作用があまり進んでいない声問層では、微生物により有機物が分解され、二酸化炭素が地下水中に供給される。一方で、声問層と比較した時に、稚内層では続成作用が進んでおり、有機物が比較的分解されにくい。このため、メタン生成反応に伴う炭酸の消費が補われることがないため、同時に炭酸塩脈が形成されやすい環境であったことが推察された。
14
Analysis of $$^{134}$$Cs, $$^{137}$$Cs and $$^{40}$$K in the certified reference material of Brown Rice by $$gamma$$-ray spectrometry using a Ge detector, 2; Uncertainty evaluation
Yonezawa, Chushiro*; Shirono, Katsuhiro*; Haraga, Tomoko
Bunseki Kagaku, 66(1), p.27 - 37, 2017/01
本報告では、ゲルマニウム半導体検出器を用いた$$gamma$$線スペクトロメトリーにおいて、放射能濃度の定量結果に対する不確かさを評価するため、認証標準物質中の$$^{134}$$Cs, $$^{137}$$Csおよび$$^{40}$$Kを用いて、代表的な定量法である「単純比較法」と「効率曲線法」を比較した。各法を構成するパラメータに含まれる不確かさの要因を精査するとともに、各要因の寄与を実験的に求めた。その結果、単純比較法では、各パラメータのうち、$$gamma$$線のピーク効率と正味ピーク計数値の不確かさの寄与が最も大きく、他の寄与は無視できるほど小さいことがわかった。効率曲線法では、サム効果補正係数と$$gamma$$線放出率の不確かさの寄与が追加され、単純比較法よりも不確かさは大きくなることがわかった。本検討により、$$gamma$$線スペクトロメトリーにおける定量結果の不確かさを示すことができた。
15
Elastically-homogeneous lattice models of damage in geomaterials
Asahina, Daisuke*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Kim, K.*; Birkholzer, J.*; Birkholzer, J. T.*; Bolander, J. E.*
Computers and Geotechnics, 81, p.195 - 206, 2017/01
This study involves the development of the auxiliary stress approach for producing elastically-homogeneous lattice models of damage in geomaterials. The lattice models are based on random, three-dimensional assemblages of rigid-body-spring elements. Unlike conventional lattice or particle models, the elastic constants of a material (e.g., Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) are represented properly in both global and local senses, without any need for calibration. The proposed approach is demonstrated and validated through analyses of homogeneous and heterogeneous systems under uni- and tri-axial loading conditions. Comparisons are made with analytical solutions and finite element results. Thereafter, the model is used to simulate a series of standard laboratory tests: (a) split-cylinder tests, and (b) uniaxial compressive tests of sedimentary rocks at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory in Hokkaido, Japan. Model inputs are based on physical quantities measured in the experiments. The simulation results agree well with the experimental results in terms of pre-peak stress-strain/displacement responses, strength measurements, and failure patterns.
16
Assessment of the functions of the impervious plug based on several monitoring results for groundwater recovery experiment
Matsui, Hiroya; Mikake, Shinichiro; Ikeda, Koki; Sasaki, Sadao
Dai-14-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/01
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting the groundwater recovery experiment to develop the methodology to estimate the recovery of geological environment after drift closure at GL-500m in Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, Gifu prefecture, Japan. For the experiment, the impervious concrete plug was constructed to keep a recovered water pressure. The authors assessed the functions of the pluge based on monitoring and interpretation of the several kinds of measurements inside and outside of the plug during groundwater recovery process in a drift. As the results, the design concept and the expected function of the impervious plug assessed almost satisfied and it is supposed no problem will occur on the groundwater recovery experiment for several months.
17
Hydrogeomechanical properties of excavation damaged zones along galleries in different depths of the Horonobe underground research laboratory
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi
Dai-14-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/01
The objective of this research is to investigate the hydro-mechanical properties of excavation damaged zones (EDZs) along the galleries excavated in 250 m and 350 m depths. We conducted hydraulic tests, BTV observations and core analyses. As a result, in the 250 m gallery, the extent of the EDZ was 1.0 m into the gallery wall. The hydraulic conductivity was increased by 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes compared with that of intact rock. On the other hand, in the 350 m gallery, the extent of the EDZ was 0.4 m into the gallery wall; the hydraulic conductivity was increased by 5 orders of magnitudes compared with that of intact rock. We investaged the difference of the characteristics of the EDZs on the basis of competence factor and ductility index. As a result, it was estimated that an extent of an EDZ decreases with decrease of competence factor; a hydraulic conductivity in an EDZ increases with decrease of ductility index.
18
Estimation of rock mass stress state based on the convergence measurement result during tunnel excavation
Kamemura, Katsumi*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Nago, Makito*; Sugawara, Kentaro*; Matsubara, Makoto*
Dai-14-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/01
In the design of deep underground structures such as high-level radioactive waste disposal repositories, the estimation of rock mass stress state is important as well as the estimation of mechanical characteristics of rock mass. This study establishes a practical and effective method for estimating in situ stress based on the convergence measurement results obtained during gallery construction of URL. The convergence was measured in various directions of the URL loop gallery at 350 m depth, and this will allow determination of the stress state over a large area using a back analysis method. In order to improve the accuracy of initial stress estimation, the relationship between convergence measurement results and geological situation of existing fractures were studied. The analysis results show good agreement with the in situ stress state results reported in previous studies and confirm the applicability of the proposed method.
19
Long-term evaluation of excavation damaged zone by optical measurement in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory
Hata, Koji*; Niunoya, Sumio*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei
Dai-14-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/01
The objective of this research is to investigate the long-term hydro-mechanical behavior of rock mass around the shaft in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The long-term monitoring has been carried out by optical AE sensors, optical water pressure sensors, and optical temperature sensors below 350m depth of the shaft in the Horonobe URL. From the measurement results, the extent of an excavation damaged zone was 1.5m within the shaft wall. After the excavation, it was observed that the unsaturated zone of the groundwater was spread more than 1.5m within the shaft wall.
20
Numerical analysis of the grout injection conducted in the ventilation shaft of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory
Nakashima, Hiroyoshi*; Koyama, Tomofumi*; Tatsuta, Keisuke*; Katayama, Tatsuo*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei
Dai-14-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/01
In this study, we created the three dimensional model based on equivalent continuum approach to study the penetration length and enhancement of the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass. The developed numerical model was applied to the in situ grout injection conducted in the ventilation shaft of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. We evaluated the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass after the grout operation. As a result, hydraulic conductivity of the highly permeable fault was decreased in 4 orders of magnitude, which is almost consistent with the in situ hydraulic conductivity obtained from in situ Luegeon test after the grout injection. Thus the simulation method described in this paper can be applied to the evaluation of the efficiency of in situ grout injection.