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1
Application of controlled-potential coulometry as a primary method for the characterization of plutonium nitrate solutions being used for reference materials (Joint Research)
Yamamoto, Masahiko; Holland, M. K.*; Cordaro, J. V.*; Kuno, Takehiko; Surugaya, Naoki
JAEA-Technology 2017-014, 63 Pages, 2017/06
In this study, the controlled-potential coulometry has been applied as a primary method for characterizing the Pu master solutions being used as alternative source material for IDMS spikes. The coulometry system compliance with ISO12183 has been used for measurement. It has been calibrated using equipment traceable to the SI units. Plutonium standard samples have been measured to confirm the accuracy. The relative standard deviation is below 0.05%. The results agree with the reference value within $$pm$$0.05%. It is found that the Pu can be precisely analyzed by the coulometry system. Then, the Pu nitrate solution, which has been purified from mixed oxide powder containing relatively high $$^{239}$$Pu, has been measured. The relative standard deviation is below 0.05%. The relative expanded uncertainty is less than 0.074% at the 95% confidence interval (k=2). It is indicated that coulometric assay of Pu is fit for the purpose of characterizing reference materials.
2
Backfilling test in drilling pits as part of Groundwater REcovery Experiment in Tunnel (GREET) Project
Takayasu, Kentaro; Onuki, Kenji*; Kawamoto, Koji*; Takayama, Yusuke; Mikake, Shinichiro; Sato, Toshinori; Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji
JAEA-Technology 2017-011, 61 Pages, 2017/06
The Groundwater REcovery Experiment in Tunnel (GREET) was put into effect as development of drift backfilling technologies. This test was conducted by making the Closure Test Drift (CTD) recovered with water after carrying out a plug around 40m distance from northern edge face of horizontal tunnel of depth 500m, for the purpose of investigation of recovering process of rock mass and groundwater under the influence of excavation of tunnel. This report presents the efforts of backfilling investigation using bentonite composite soil and execution of backfilling into borehole pits excavated in the CTD which were carried out in fiscal 2014 as a part of GREET, and succeeding observation results inside pits from September 2014 to March 2016.
3
Study on the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste generated from post-irradiation examination facilities, 2
Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Yuzuru; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yasuo*; Machida, Hiroshi*
JAEA-Technology 2017-010, 75 Pages, 2017/06
It is necessary for reasonable disposal to be studied on evaluation methods to determine radioactivity concentrations in the radioactive wastes, which is generated from post-irradiation examination (PIE) facilities, for establishment of reasonable confirmation methods concerning radioactive wastes generated from research, industrial, and medical facilities. It has been chosen the PIE facilities of NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION as a model for this study. As a result, it has been confirmed that the theoretical methods are applied for the important nuclides (H-3, C-14, Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-90, Tc-99, Cs-137, Eu-154, U-234, U-235, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Am-241 and Cm-244).
4
Gas-strip methods of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater for radiocarbon analysis
Kato, Toshihiro; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Nishio, Tomohiro*
JAEA-Technology 2017-009, 30 Pages, 2017/06
Groundwater age is an important information to infer the groundwater flow. The radiocarbon ($$^{14}$$C) dating of the groundwater is primary method for the evaluation of groundwater flow. The carbon in the groundwater generally exist as a dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Though DIC in groundwater samples is usually collected by chemical precipitation method, the method requires lots of preparation to sample the carbon. Furthermore there are problems with the reproducibility on precipitation and measurement value. This study newly examined the application of gas-strip method to collect DIC in groundwater sample by using JAEA-made gas-strip system. The performance of the CO$$_{2}$$ gas-stripping from groundwater and the influence of sulfide are investigated. Based on these results, the operation procedures of gas-strip system and preparation method for the groundwater samples were summarized in this report.
5
XAFS measurement of simulated waste borosilicate glass samples (Joint research)
Nagai, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Sasage, Kenichi; Ayame, Yasuo; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Yamanaka, Keisuke*; Ota, Toshiaki*
JAEA-Research 2017-005, 54 Pages, 2017/06
Addition of radioactive waste to a borosilicate frit affects the local structures of boron (B) and waste elements in a waste glass. Synchrotron XAFS measurement was applied to investigate the local structural changes by using simulated waste borosilicate glass samples. Following results were obtained by the B K-edge XAFS analysis. It was confirmed that B K-edge XAFS analysis enables us to discriminate sp$$^{2}$$ type boron (BO$$_{3}$$) from sp$$^{3}$$ type boron (BO$$_{4}$$). Addition of waste elements to a glass frit increases the percentage of BO$$_{3}$$ and decreases that of BO$$_{4}$$. By decreasing the SiO$$_{2}$$/Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ ratio or increasing the (SiO$$_{2}$$+B$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$)/Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ ratio in the glass composition, the BO$$_{3}$$ percentage increases and the BO$$_{4}$$ percentage decreases. Addition of P$$_{2}$$O$$_{5}$$ decreases the BO$$_{3}$$ percentage and increases the BO$$_{4}$$ percentage. Following results were obtained from XAFS measurement of the waste elements. Cerium (Ce) valence is more reduced with the increase of the B$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ content. Addition of P$$_{2}$$O$$_{5}$$ has a tendency to reduce the Ce valence and to enhance deposition of Zr oxide. Deposition of ruthenium compounds separated from glass phase can not be improved by changing the B$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ content. This study was performed as a part of the project, "Improvement of vitrification process of high-level radioactive liquid wastes" on the foundation business of the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy.
6
A Study of the evaluation of the excavation damaged zone in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, 2; Investigation in the 250 m gallery (Joint research)
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Kubota, Kenji*; Nakata, Eiji*; Suenaga, Hiroshi*; Nohara, Shintaro*
JAEA-Research 2017-004, 91 Pages, 2017/06
In this study, we performed seismic tomography, seismic refraction survey, resistivity tomography, and hydraulic tests to investigate the hydro-mechanical property of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in the 250 m gallery of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. As a result of seismic tomography, seismic velocity is significantly decreased within 1 m from the gallery wall. The decrease of seismic velocity is related to the density of fracture induced around the gallery wall as a result of the gallery excavation. Thus the extent of the fractures induced by gallery excavation, i.e., EDZ fractures is clarified to be within 1.0 m from the gallery wall. The enhanced hydraulic conductivity was detected within 0.5 to 1.0 m from the gallery wall on the basis of the result of hydraulic tests. This is almost consistent with the extent of the region that seismic velocity is significantly decreased. Therefore, it is estimated that EDZ fractures induced around the gallery leads to the increase of hydraulic conductivity. In addition, the desaturation zone around the gallery is not induced as a result of resistivity tomography. From these results, the hydro-mechanical property of the EDZ is clarified in detail. Also, the in situ tests and evaluation method applied in this study are appropriate to investigate the EDZ in detail.
7
Research of the tasks on risk communication enforcement in Fiscal Year 2015; Contract research
Tanaka, Masaru*; Aoyama, Isao*; Ishizaka, Kaoru*; Ohata, Yuki*; Fukuike, Iori*; Kawase, Keiichi; Watanabe, Masanori; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Miyagawa, Hiroshi*; Ishimori, Yuu
JAEA-Research 2017-003, 65 Pages, 2017/06
JAEA Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center and Fukushima Environmental Safety Center have same challenges in risk communication. As reference, similar domestic cases were investigated by our two Centers, and requirements for building long-term relationship were clarified. As follows; (1) Develop new relationship with various stakeholders in the region. (2) Make better use of existing resources (personnel, land and facilities, etc.). (3) Make a concerted effort to create new values with local stakeholders. (4) Make an opportunity which local stakeholders confirm safety and build confidence to the project. These efforts will enhance the opportunities for operators and residents to learn about environment management and environmental protection.
8
Groundwater pressure records by geochemical monitoring system in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory
Mezawa, Tetsuya; Mochizuki, Akihito; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Sasamoto, Hiroshi
JAEA-Data/Code 2017-010, 63 Pages, 2017/06
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting "geoscientific study" and "research and development on geological disposal" in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) for safe geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Geochemical parameters of groundwater pressure, pH, and oxidation-reduction potential in the deep groundwater has been continuously monitored by the monitoring system which was developed in the Horonobe URL Project. This report presents the data of groundwater pressure which have been obtained by the monitoring system installed at the 140 m and 350 m gallery. The data obtained until March 31, 2016 was summarized along with related information such as the specifications of boreholes and the excavation of the URL.
9
Geological and topographical data concerning normal faults (Kawaminami Fault) in the northern Miyazaki Plain, Southern Kyushu, Japan
Niwa, Masakazu; Kurosawa, Hideki*; Kosaka, Hideki*; Ikuta, Masafumi*; Takatori, Ryoichi*
JAEA-Data/Code 2017-009, 71 Pages, 2017/06
Changes of stress state due to the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake triggered normal displacements of faults that have not been regarded as active faults. In this study, geological survey for normal faults in coastal region was conducted in order to understand the mechanism of reactivation of inactive faults triggered by megathrust earthquakes. This report includes topographical and geological data obtained by field works in and around the Kawaminami Fault in northern margin of the Miyazaki Plain, with results of microscopic examination, analyses of X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution for clayey samples, analyses of tephra and plant opal, and radiocarbon dating.
10
Report on analytical activities in potentially hazardous materials mitigation measures at the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility; 2015.12 $$sim$$ 2016.10
Horigome, Kazushi; Taguchi, Shigeo; Ishibashi, Atsushi; Inada, Satoshi; Kuno, Takehiko; Surugaya, Naoki
JAEA-Technology 2017-008, 14 Pages, 2017/05
The plutonium solution had been converted into MOX powder to mitigate the potential hazards of storage plutonium solution such as hydrogen generation at the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility. The plutonium conversion operations had been started in April, 2014, and had been finished in July, 2016. With respect to the samples taken from the conversion process, about 2,200 items of plutonium/uranium solutions and MOX powders had been analyzed for the operation control in the related analytical laboratories at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. This paper describes the reports on analytical activities and related maintenance works in the analytical laboratories conducted from December, 2015 to October, 2016.
11
Characterization of rare earth elements (REEs) associated with suspended particles in deep granitic groundwater and their post-closure behavior from a simulated underground facility
Iwatsuki, Teruki; Munemoto, Takashi*; Kubota, Mitsuru*; Hayashida, Kazuki; Kato, Toshihiro*
Applied Geochemistry, 82, p.134 - 145, 2017/05
This study investigated the behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) associated with suspended particles in deep granitic groundwater and in a sealed drift at a depth of 500 m in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Japan. Approximately 10%$$sim$$60% of REEs in groundwater are associated with suspended particles. Carbonate particles in groundwater are most likely derived from in situ precipitation of supersaturated carbonate minerals such as calcite. Thermodynamic calculations show that the dissolved REE carbonate complexes in the closed drift decreased in the drift closure period. These complexes may have been absorbed or co-precipitated within the shotcrete on the drift wall. The usage of cement based materials would generate environmental conditions in which REEs are fundamentally immobile in and around the underground facilities.
12
Sorption behavior of Np(V) on microbe pure culture and consortia
Onuki, Toshihiko; Kozai, Naofumi; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Utsunomiya, Satoshi*; Kato, Kenji*
Chemistry Letters, 2(5), p.771 - 774, 2017/05
The sorption behavior of Np(V) by the microbe consortia and by a single pure culture of Fe reducing bacterium was studied at pH between 3 and 7 in resting cell conditions. The sorption of Np(V) by the Fe reducing bacterium obtained in the inert condition and by the consortia in aerated condition were higher than by the Fe reducing bacterium in aerobic condition at pH below 5, strongly suggesting presence of other mechanism than the adsorption on microbial cell surface, i.e. reduction to Np(IV).
13
Preliminary assessment of the highest potential transmissivity of fractures in fault zones by core logging
Ishii, Eiichi
Engineering Geology, 221, p.124 - 132, 2017/04
Based on previous hydromechanical studies on fault zones, fault zones without development of tensile/hybrid damage-zone fractures have unlikely experienced faulting in highly brittle manner, and the highest potential transmissivity of fractures in such fault zones is assumed to be likely relatively low (transmissivity (T) $$leq$$ 10$$^{-8}$$m$$^{2}$$/s). To verify this assumption, this study investigated the relationship between the failure mode (tensile/hybrid/shear) of damage-zone fractures and the highest transmissivity of fractures in fault zones, using results from core logging and flowing-fluids electric conductivity logging in boreholes penetrating a Neogene siliceous mudstone of the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan. In 96% (35/36) of fault zones where tensile/hybrid damage-zone fracture is not observed, the transmissivities of flow anomalies detected within the fault zones by FFEC logging are within a range of $$geq$$ 10$$^{-8}$$m$$^{2}$$/s. This result supports the above-mentioned assumption.
14
Applicability of the three-dimensional laser scanning to the fracture mapping on a gallery wall
Hayano, Akira; Itakura, Kenichi*
Journal of MMIJ, 133(4), p.76 - 86, 2017/04
大規模地下施設建設の坑道掘削時に行われる割れ目観察は、調査員の目視観察とクリノメーターを使用した割れ目方位の簡易計測といった従来からの手法に基づいている。そのため、調査の規模が大きいほどデータ品質の確保と調査員の安全確保が依然として課題である。計測対象物の三次元形状を表す点群を瞬時に取得できる三次元レーザスキャナ計測は、これらの課題解決に有効である。本研究では、レーザ計測の坑道壁面の割れ目観察への適用性を確認するために、坑道壁面の形状を表す点群から割れ目の方位やトレース長などの空間分布に関する情報を取得する方法を検討した。その手法は、坑道壁面形状を表す判読画像を用いた割れ目判読を基本としている。そして、その手法を掘削長50m程度の水平坑道に適用し、点群から取得できる割れ目データがどの程度従来手法に基づく割れ目データを再現しているのか確認した。その結果、調査員が目視観察により抽出した割れ目のうち8割強の割れ目が抽出され、割れ目方位も従来手法と比べて遜色ないことを確認した。点群から抽出できなかった割れ目のほとんどは、透水に寄与しないトレース長が短く密着性の良い割れ目であった。
15
Improvement of INVS measurement uncertainty for Pu and U-Pu nitrate solution
Swinhoe, M. T.*; Menlove, H. O.*; Marlow, J. B.*; Makino, Risa; Nakamura, Hironobu
LA-UR-17-23474, 28 Pages, 2017/04
The Inventory Verification Sample system (INVS) has been used for IAEA verification measurement at the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility for MOX powder and Pu solution samples (measurement uncertainty: about 3-5%). If the measurement uncertainty can be improved (to $$sim$$1%), it is expected that the range of usage can be extended and it could reduce the number of destructive analyses. In order to improve the measurement uncertainty for solution samples, we conducted three different types of calibration method that are passive calibration curve method, known-$$alpha$$ method and multiplicity method after optimization of detector parameter and sample position. In the range of concentration of typical solution samples, a good correlation was found between measured doubles and $$^{240}$$Pu effective mass in the three methods. Especially, the result of the conventional calibration curve method and known-$$alpha$$ method met our target uncertainty within 1% (22 hours measurement). Since it is thought that background singles change may affect measurement uncertainty, an additional shielding was installed around the INVS to reduce those effects. This shielding improved measurement uncertainty in known-$$alpha$$ method. The results with this shielding suggests passive calibration method and known-$$alpha$$ method could achieve the target uncertainty within 1% less than 1 hour measurement time.
16
Completion of solidification and stabilization for Pu nitrate solution to reduce potential risks at Tokai Reprocessing Plant
Mukai, Yasunobu; Nakamichi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Nishimura, Kazuaki; Fujisaku, Sakae; Tanaka, Hideki; Isomae, Hidemi; Nakamura, Hironobu; Kurita, Tsutomu; Iida, Masayoshi*; et al.
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2017/04
TRP has stored the plutonium in solution state for long-term since the last PCDF operation in 2007 was finished. After the great east Japan earthquake in 2011, JAEA had investigated the risk against potential hazard of these solutions which might lead to make hydrogen explosion and/or boiling of the solution accidents with the release of radioactive materials to the public when blackout. To reduce the risk for storing Pu solution (about 640 kg Pu), JAEA planned to perform the process operation for the solidification and stabilization of the solution by converted into MOX powder at PCDF in 2013. In order to perform PCDF operation without adaption of new safety regulation, JAEA conducted several safety measures such as emergency safety countermeasures, necessary security and safeguards (3S) measures with understanding of NRA. As a result, the PCDF operation had stared on 28th April, 2014, and successfully completed to convert MOX powder on 3rd August, 2016 for about 2 years as planned.
17
Treatment of electric hydraulic control fluid (EHC Oil) with steam-reforming system
Okadome, Yoshihiro; Aoyama, Yoshio; Sasaki, Yu; Fukushima, Mineo
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (DVD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2017/04
Electric Hydraulic Control fluid (EHC Oil) is used as the working fluid in the high-pressure EHC system on steam turbine-generator unit of nuclear power plant. Disposal EHC Oil is stored as radioactive secondary waste and can be incinerated, however phosphorous compounds will be generated. Phosphorous compounds causes corrosion of incinerator wall and clogging of filter. The objective of this study is to develop the treatment for the disposal EHC Oil using steam-reforming system which has a potential for reduction of radioactive secondary waste. We conducted the treatment test using EHC Oil and n-dodecane mixture as simulated disposal EHC Oil with 3.5wt% of phosphorus compounds. We measured the weight reduction rate of the simulated disposal EHC Oil in the gasification chamber. As the results, more than 99% of the simulated disposal EHC Oil was gasified from the gasification chamber at temperature of 600 or more.
18
Current status of decommissioning activities at Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center
Ishimori, Yuu
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2017/04
This paper illustrates the current status of decommissioning activities at four facilities in the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. (1) The Test milling facility was dismantled from 1999 to 2002. The dismantled materials are stored, and surveyed to determine the quantities of contaminants in the Dismantled materials storage facility. (2) Major equipment at the Refining and conversion facility was dismantled and removed from 2008 to 2013. About 530 t of dismantled materials were generated. Measures of other materials and equipment are taken for easier area managements. (3) A part of centrifuges in the Enrichment engineering facility was decontaminated with 5% of dilute sulfuric acid, and some of them were reused after clearance. Major equipment except centrifuges at the facility has been dismantled and removed since 2014. Dismantling activity will end in 2022. So far, about 270 t of dismantled materials were generated. (4) Centrifuges in the Uranium enrichment demonstration plant have been flushed by $$mathrm{IF}_7$$ gas since 2002 before dismantling. Decontamination efficiencies for DOP-1 and for DOP-2 were about 91% and 99%, respectively. Further plans for dismantling of centrifuges are under review. (5) Related techniques such as measurements are also explained.
19
Development of the reasonable confirmation methods concerning radioactive wastes from research facilities
Hayashi, Hirokazu; Okada, Shota; Izumo, Sari; Hoshino, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hisakazu; Sakai, Akihiro; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2017/04
A near surface disposal for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) is operating in Japan. However, the disposal of LLW from other nuclear facilities and radioisotope utilization facilities has not yet been implemented. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) plans to implement the near surface disposal. In order to be disposed of these wastes, it must be confirmed by the regulator that each waste package (radioactive waste solidified with filling materials, such as cement, in a container by a regulated method is termed a waste package) conforms to technical standards that aim for safe disposal. JAEA has studied reasonable confirmation methods to demonstrate the conformity of the waste package to the technical standard as NPP operators have studied it. This report describes the outline of our activities focused on development of the confirmation method applicable to radioactive wastes from research facilities.
20
Development and implementation of GloveBox Cleanout Assistance Tool (BCAT) to detect the presence of MOX by computational approach
Nakamura, Hironobu; Nakamichi, Hideo; Mukai, Yasunobu; Hosoma, Takashi; Kurita, Tsutomu; LaFleur, A. M.*
Proceedings of International Conference on Mathematics & Computational Methods Applied to Nuclear Science & Engineering (M&C 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2017/04
In order to maintain facility nuclear material accountancy (NMA) and safeguards properly, to understand where and how much holdup deposit in the process is presence is very important for the cleanout before PIT. JAEA and LANL developed a GloveBox Cleanout Assistance Tool (BCAT) to help cleanout (MOX powder recovering in a glovebox) for invisible holdup effectively by computational approach which is called distributed source-term approach (DSTA). The BCAT tool is a simple neutron measurement slab detectors and helps operator to find locations of holdup. To know the holdup location and the activity from the neutron measurements, the relation between BCAT measurements results at predetermined positions (57 positions) and source voxels (53 voxels) that we want to know the holdup activity was mathematically defined as a matrix by the MCNPX simulation. The model of MCNPX for entire process is very precisely established. We have implemented and experimentally proved that the BCAT tool can direct the operator to recoverable holdup that would otherwise be accounted for as MUF. Reducing facility MUF results in a direct improvement of the facility NMA. The BCAT enables the staff to significantly improve their knowledge of the locations of residual holdup in the process area. JAEA would like to use this application for dismantling of the glovebox with transparency in the future.