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1
Development of fuel temperature calculation code for HTGRs
Inaba, Yoshitomo; Nishihara, Tetsuo
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 101, p.383 - 389, 2017/03
In order to ensure the thermal integrity of fuel in High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs), it is necessary that the maximum fuel temperature in normal operation is to be lower than a thermal design target. In the core thermal-hydraulic design of block-type HTGRs, the maximum fuel temperature should be evaluated considering data such as thermal power, core geometry, power density and neutron fluence distributions, and core coolant flow distribution. The fuel temperature calculation code used in the design stage of the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) presupposes to run on UNIX systems, and its operation and execution procedure are complicated and are not user-friendly. Therefore, a new fuel temperature calculation code named FTCC which has a user-friendly system such as a simple and easy operation and execution procedure, was developed. This paper describes calculation objects and models, basic equations, improvement points from the HTTR design code in FTCC, and the result of a validation calculation with FTCC. The calculation result obtained by FTCC provides good agreement with that of the HTTR design code, and then FTCC will be used as one of the design codes for HTGRs. In addition, the effect of cooling forms on the maximum fuel temperature is investigated by using FTCC. As a result, it was found that the effect of center hole cooling for hollow fuel compacts and gapless cooling with monolithic type fuel rods on reducing the temperature is very high.
2
Improvement of neutron startup source handling work by developing new transportation container for High-Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)
Shimazaki, Yosuke; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Shinohara, Masanori; Yanagida, Yoshinori; Kawamoto, Taiki; Takada, Shoji
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(2), p.260 - 266, 2017/02
The High-Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has three neutron startup sources (NSs) in the reactor core, each of which consists of $$^{252}$$Cf with 3.7 GBq and is contained in a small capsule, installed in NS holder and subsequently in a control guide block (CR block). The NSs are exchanged at the interval of approximately 7 years. The NS holders are transported from the dealer's hot cell to the reactor facility of HTTR using a transportation container. The loading work of NS holders to the CR blocks is subsequently carried out in the fuel handling machine maintenance pit of HTTR. Technical issues, which are the reduction and prevention of radiation exposure of workers and the exclusion of falling of NS holder, were extracted from the experiences in past two exchange works of NSs to develop a safety handling procedure. Then, a new transportation container special to the NSs of HTTR was developed to solve the technical issues while keeping the cost as low as that for overhaul of conventional container. As the results, the NS handling work using the new transportation container was safely accomplished by developing the new transportation container which can reduce the risks of radiation exposure dose of workers and exclude the falling of NS holder.
3
Shielding calculation by PHITS code during replacement works of startup neutron sources for HTTR operation
Shinohara, Masanori; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Sawahata, Hiroaki
JAEA-Technology 2016-033, 65 Pages, 2017/01
To reduce the neutron exposure dose for workers during the replacement works of the startup neutron sources of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, calculations of the exposure dose in case of temporary neutron shielding at the bottom of fuels handling machine were carried out by the PHITS code. As a result, it is clear that the dose equivalent rate due to neutron radiation can be reduced to about an order of magnitude by setting a temporary neutron shielding at the bottom of shielding cask for the fuel handling machine. In the actual replacement works, by setting temporary neutron shielding, it was achieved that the cumulative equivalent dose of the workers was reduced to 0.3 man mSv which is less than half of cumulative equivalent dose for the previous replacement works; 0.7 man mSv.
4
Sustainable and safe energy supply with seawater uranium fueled HTGR and its economy
Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 99, p.19 - 27, 2017/01
Sustainable and safe energy supply with seawater fueled HTGR have been investigated to sustain the nuclear energy safely by electricity generation with HTGR, the uranium resources must be inexhaustible. The seawater uranium is expected to be alternative resources to conventional resources. It is said that 4.5 billion tons of uranium is dissolved in the seawater, which corresponds to a consumption of approximately 72 thousand years. The uranium dissolved in seawater is in an equilibrium state with the uranium on surface of sea floor, which is approximately a thousand times of the amount, that is 72 million years. It can be recoverable. In other words, the uranium from seawater is almost inexhaustible natural resource. The cost of extracting uranium from seawater with current technology is still expensive compared with that of conventional uranium. However, the economy of nuclear power generation fueled by seawater uranium should be assessed for entire electricity generation cost. In the present study, the economy of electricity generation using uranium from seawater is assessed using a commercial HTGR. Compared with ordinary LWR using conventional uranium, HTGR can realize lower cost of electricity owing to small volume of simple direct gas turbine system compared with water and steam systems of LWR, rationalization by modularizing, and high thermal efficiency, even if fueled by seawater uranium. It is concluded that the HTGR fueled by seawater uranium with the current technology enables the energy sustainability to be maintained for a long term approximately 70 million years with superior inherent safety features and low cost of 7.28 yen/kWh, which is lower than the 8.80 yen/kWh cost of LWR using conventional uranium.
5
Investigation of absorption characteristics for thermal-load fluctuation using HTTR
Tochio, Daisuke; Honda, Yuki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sekita, Kenji; Homma, Fumitaka; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Takada, Shoji; Nakagawa, Shigeaki
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(1), p.13 - 21, 2017/01
GTHTR300C is designed and developed in JAEA. The reactor system is required to continue a stable and safety operation as well as a stable power supply in the case that thermal-load is fluctuated by the occurrence of abnormal event in the heat utilization system. Then, it is necessary to demonstrate that the thermal-load fluctuation should be absorbed by the reactor system so as to continue the stable and safety operation could be continued. The thermal-load fluctuation absorption tests without nuclear heating were planned and conducted in JAEA to clarify the absorption characteristic of thermal-load fluctuation mainly by the reactor and by the IHX. As the result it was revealed that the reactor has the larger absorption capacity of thermal-load fluctuation than expected one, and the IHX can be contributed to the absorption of the thermal-load fluctuation generated in the heat utilization system in the reactor system. It was confirmed from there result that the reactor and the IHX has effective absorption capacity of the thermal-load fluctuation generated in the heat utilization system. Moreover it was confirmed that the safety estimation code based on RELAP5/MOD3 can represents the thermal-load fluctuation absorption behavior conservatively.
6
Proposals of new basic concepts on safety and radioactive waste and of new high temperature gas-cooled reactor based on these basic concepts
Ogawa, Masuro
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 308, p.133 - 141, 2016/11
A new basic concept on safety; Not causing any serious catastrophe by any means and a new basic concept on radioactive waste; Not returning any waste that possibly affects the environment are proposed in the present study, aiming at nuclear power plants which everybody can accept, in consideration of the serious catastrophe that happened at Fukushima in 2011. In the present study, physical phenomena are used to continue confining, rather than confine. To continue confining is meant to apply natural correction to fulfill inherent safety function. Fission products must be detoxified to realize the new basic concept on radioactive waste, aiming at the final processing and disposal of radioactive wastes as same as that in the other wastes such as PCB. The New HTGR is proposed based on the new basic concepts. It is indicated that the New HTGR can response to social requirements for safety and environmental conservability against radioactive wastes, industrial requirements for economy, uranium resource sustainability and so on, and national requirements for non-proliferation and environmental protection against carbon dioxide.
7
Nuclear thermal design of high temperature gas-cooled reactor with SiC/C mixed matrix fuel compacts
Aihara, Jun; Goto, Minoru; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Ueta, Shohei; Sumita, Junya; Tachibana, Yukio
Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.814 - 822, 2016/11
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started R&D for apply SiC/C mixed matrix to fuel element of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to improve oxidation resistance of fuel. Nuclear thermal design of HTGR with SiC/C mixed matrix fuel compacts was carried out as a part of above R&Ds. Nuclear thermal design was carried out based on a small sized HTGR for developing countries, HTR50S. Maximum enrichment of uranium is set to be 10 wt%, because coated fuel particles with 10 wt% uranium have been fabricated in Japan. Numbers of kinds of enrichment and burnable poisons (BPs) were set to be same as those of original HTR50S (3 and 2, respectively). We succeeded in nuclear thermal design of a small sized HTGR which performance was equivalent to original HTR50S, with SiC/C mixed matrix fuel compacts. Based on nuclear thermal design, intactness of coated fuel particles was evaluated to be kept on internal pressure during normal operation.
8
HTTR-GT/H$$_{2}$$ test plant; System performance evaluation for HTTR gas turbine cogeneration plant
Sato, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Yasunobu; Horii, Shoichi; Sumita, Junya; Yan, X.; Ohashi, Hirofumi
Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.759 - 766, 2016/11
This paper presents the system performance evaluation for HTTR gas turbine cogeneration test plant (HTTR-GT/H$$_{2}$$ plant) so as to confirm that the design meets the requirements with respect to the demonstration test objective. Start-up and shut down operation sequences as well as operability of load following operation were investigated. In addition, system dynamic and control analyses for the test plant in the events of loss of generator load and upset of H$$_{2}$$ plant were performed. The simulation results presented in the paper show that the test plant is suitable for the test bed to validate control schemes against postulated transients in the commercial Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor Cogeneration (GTHTR300C). The results also lead us to the conclusion that HTTR-GT/H$$_{2}$$ plant can be used to test operational procedure unique to HTGR direct-cycle gas turbine cogeneration.
9
Sensitivity analysis of xenon reactivity temperature dependency for HTTR LOFC test by using RELAP5-3D code
Honda, Yuki; Fukaya, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Baker, R. I.*; Sato, Hiroyuki
Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.704 - 713, 2016/11
A high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has superior safety characteristics. A loss of forced cooling (LOFC) test using a high-temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) has been carried out to verify the inherent safety of an HTGR when forced cooling is diminished without reactor scram. In the test, an all-gas circulator was tripped with an initial reactor power of 9 MW and re-criticality was shown. This study focuses on developing a point kinetics method with RELAP5-3D code for an LOFC accident. There is a large temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the core in an HTGR, and the temperature fluctuation range has been large in several accidents. We analyze the temperature dependency of xenon-135 reactivity and show that the temperature dependency of xenon-135 microscopic absorption cross-section affected the re-criticality time of the LOFC test.
10
IS process hydrogen production test for components and system made of industrial structural material, 2; H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ decomposition, HI distillation, and HI decomposition section
Noguchi, Hiroki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kamiji, Yu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji
Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.1029 - 1038, 2016/11
JAEA has been conducting R&D on the IS process for nuclear-powered hydrogen production. We have constructed a 100 NL/h-H$$_2$$-scale test apparatus made of industrial materials. At first, we investigated performance of components in this apparatus. In this paper, the test results of H$$_2$$SO$$_4$$ decomposition, HI distillation, and HI decomposition were shown. In the H$$_2$$SO$$_4$$ section, O$$_2$$ production rate is proportional to H$$_2$$SO$$_4$$ feed rate and SO$$_3$$ decomposition ratio was estimated about 80%. In HI distillation section, we confirmed to acquire a concentrated HI solution over azeotropic HI composition in the condenser. In HI decomposition section, H$$_2$$ could be produced stably by HI decomposer and decomposition ratio was about 18%. The H$$_2$$SO$$_4$$ decomposer, the HI distillation column, and the HI decomposer were workable. Based on the results added to that shown in Series I, we conducted a trial continuous operation and succeeded it for 8 hours.
11
IS process hydrogen production test for components and system made of industrial structural material, 1; Bunsen and HI concentration section
Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Takegami, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Iwatsuki, Jin; Aita, Hideki; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji
Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.1022 - 1028, 2016/11
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has manufactured 100 NL/h-H$$_2$$-scale hydrogen test apparatus. In advance to conduct the continuous operation, we investigated performance of the components in each section of the IS process. In this paper, the results of test of Bunsen and HI concentration sections was shown. In Bunsen reaction, section, we confirmed that outlet gas flow rate included no SO$$_{2}$$ gas, indicating that all the feed SO$$_{2}$$ gas was absorbed to the solution in the Bunsen reactor for the Bunsen reaction. On the basis of these results, we evaluated that Bunsen reactor was workable. In HI concentration section, HI concentration was conducted by EED stack. As a result, it can concentrate HI in HIx solution as theoretically predicted on the basis of the previous paper. Based on the results added to that shown in Series II, we have conducted a trial continuous operation and succeeded it for 8 hours.
12
Development of safety requirements for HTGRs design
Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Tokuhara, Kazumi; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko
Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.330 - 340, 2016/11
The safety requirements for the design of HTGRs has been developed by the research committee established in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan so as to incorporate the HTGR safety features demonstrated by HTTR, lessons learned from the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and requirements for the coupling of the hydrogen production plants with nuclear plant. The safety design approach was determined to establish a high level of safety design standards by utilizing inherent safety features of HTGRs. This paper describes the process to develop the HTGR specific safety requirements and overview of the proposed HTGR specific safety requirements.
13
The IAEA coordinated research project on modular HTGR safety design; Status and outlook
Reitsma, F.*; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Ohashi, Hirofumi
Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.341 - 352, 2016/11
The IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) Safety Design started in December 2014 and is now in its second year of implementation. The project investigates and makes proposals on safety design criteria by not only considering the existing water cooled reactors safety requirements for nuclear power plant design but also making use of past and current experience of HTGR licensing in the IAEA member states including Japan. The detailed project content and a description of modular HTGRs and its safety features are given. This informs the comments made on the applicability of the existing requirements and the examples of newly proposed HTGR specific safety requirements under development.
14
Development of a core coolant flow distribution calculation code for HTGRs
Inaba, Yoshitomo; Honda, Yuki; Nishihara, Tetsuo
Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.985 - 990, 2016/11
In order to ensure the thermal integrity of fuel in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), it is necessary that the maximum fuel temperature in the normal operation is to be lower than the thermal design target. In the core thermal-hydraulic design of block-type HTGRs, the maximum fuel temperature should be evaluated considering data such as thermal power, core geometry, power and neutron fluence distributions, and core coolant flow distribution. The core coolant flow distribution calculation code used in the design stage of High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) presupposes to run on UNIX systems, and its operation and execution procedure are complicated and not user-friendly. Therefore, a new core coolant flow distribution calculation code with a user-friendly system such as simple and easy operations and execution procedures has been developed. In this paper, the outline of the new code is described and the simulation result of an out-of-pile test with one fuel column is shown as the first step of the code validation. The simulation results provide good agreement with the test one.
15
Irradiation test about oxidation-resistant graphite in WWR-K research reactor
Shibata, Taiju; Sumita, Junya; Sakaba, Nariaki; Osaki, Takashi*; Kato, Hideki*; Izawa, Shoichi*; Muto, Takenori*; Gizatulin, S.*; Shaimerdenov, A.*; Dyussambayev, D.*; et al.
Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.567 - 571, 2016/11
Graphite are used for the in-core components of HTGR, and it is desirable to enhance oxidation resistance to keep much safety margin. SiC coating is the candidate method for this purpose. JAEA and four Japanese graphite companies are studying to develop oxidation-resistant graphite. Neutron irradiation test was carried out by WWR-K reactor of INP of Kazakhstan through ISTC partner project. The total irradiation cycles of WWR-K operation was 10 cycles by 200 days. Irradiation temperature about 1473 K would be attained. The maximum fast neutron fluence (E $$>$$0.18 MeV) for the capsule irradiated at a central irradiation hole was preliminary calculated as 1.2$$times$$10$$^{25}$$/m$$^{-2}$$, and for the capsule at a peripheral irradiation hole as 4.2$$times$$10$$^{24}$$/m$$^{-2}$$. Dimension and weight of the irradiated specimens were measured, and outer surface of the specimens were observed by optical microscope. For the irradiated oxidation resistant graphite, out-of-pile oxidation test will be carried out at an experimental laboratory.
16
Irradiation test and post irradiation examination of the high burnup HTGR fuel
Ueta, Shohei; Aihara, Jun; Shaimerdenov, A.*; Dyussambayev, D.*; Gizatulin, S.*; Chakrov, P.*; Sakaba, Nariaki
Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.246 - 252, 2016/11
In order to examine irradiation performance of the new Tri-structural Isotropic (TRISO) fuel for the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) at the burnup around 100 GWd/t, a capsule irradiation test was conducted by WWR-K research reactor in the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) of Kazakhstan. The irradiated TRISO fuel was designed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and fabricated in basis of the HTTR fuel technology in Japan. The fractional release of fission gas from the fuel during the irradiation shows good agreement with the predicted one released from as-fabricated failed TRISO fuel. It was suggested that unexpected additional fuel failure would not occur during the irradiation up to 100 GWd/t. In addition, the post-irradiation examination (PIE) with the irradiated fuel is planned to qualify TRISO fuel integrity and upgrade HTGR fuel design for further burnup extension.
17
Conceptual design of iodine-sulfur process flowsheet with more than 50% thermal efficiency for hydrogen production
Kasahara, Seiji; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Koichi*; Iwatsuki, Jin; Terada, Atsuhiko; Yan, X.
Proceedings of 8th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.491 - 500, 2016/11
A conceptual design of a practical large scale plant of the thermochemical water splitting iodine-sulfur (IS) process flowsheet was carried out as a heat application of Japan Atomic Energy Agency's commercial Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor Cogeneration (GTHTR300C) plant design. Innovative techniques proposed by JAEA were applied for improvement of hydrogen production thermal efficiency; flash concentration of H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ using waste heat from Bunsen reaction, prevention of H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ vaporization from a distillation column by introduction of H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{4}$$ solution, and I$$_{2}$$ condensation heat recovery by direct contact heat exchange in the HI distillation column. A simulation of material and heat balance showed hydrogen of about 31,900 Nm$$^{3}$$/h was produced by 170 MW heat from the GTHTR300C. A process thermal efficiency of 50.2% was achievable with incorporation of the innovative techniques and several high performance components expected in future R&D.
18
New reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with passive safety features; A Comparative methodology between a real RCCS and a scaled-down heat-removal test facility
Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Matsumoto, Tatsuya*; Morita, Koji*
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 96, p.137 - 147, 2016/10
After Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster by TEPCO, a cooling system to prevent core damage became more important from the perspective of defense in depth. Therefore, a new, highly efficient RCCS with passive safety features without a requirement for electricity and mechanical drive is proposed. Employing the air as the working fluid and the ambient air as the ultimate heat sink, the new RCCS design strongly reduces the possibility of losing the heat sink for decay heat removal. The RCCS can always stably and passively remove a part of the released heat at the rated operation and the decay heat after reactor shutdown. Specifically, emergency power generators are not necessary and the decay heat can be passively removed for a long time, even forever if the heat removal capacity of the RCCS is sufficient. We can also define the experimental conditions on radiation and natural convection for the scale-down heat removal test facility.
19
Investigation of countermeasure against local temperature rise in vessel cooling system in loss of core cooling test without nuclear heating
Ono, Masato; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kondo, Makoto; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Shinohara, Masanori; Tochio, Daisuke; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro
Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 2(4), p.044502_1 - 044502_4, 2016/10
In the loss of forced core cooling test using High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), the forced cooling of reactor core is stopped without inserting control rods into the core and cooling by Vessel Cooling System (VCS) to verify safety evaluation codes to investigate the inherent safety of HTGR be secured by natural phenomena to make it possible to design a severe accident free reactor. The VCS passively removes the retained residual heat and the decay heat from the core via the reactor pressure vessel by natural convection and thermal radiation. In the test, the local temperature was supposed to exceed the limit from the viewpoint of long-term use at the uncovered water cooling tube by thermal reflectors in the VCS, although the safety of reactor is kept. Through a cold test, which was carried out by non-nuclear heat input from gas circulators with stopping water flow in the VCS, the local higher temperature position was specified although the temperature was sufficiently lower than the maximum allowable working temperature, and natural circulation of water had insufficient cooling effect on the temperature of water cooling tube below 1$$^{circ}$$C. Then, a new safe and secured procedure for the loss of forced core cooling test was established, which will be carried out soon after the restart of HTTR.
20
Nuclear heat supply fluctuation tests by non-nuclear heating with HTTR
Inaba, Yoshitomo; Sekita, Kenji; Nemoto, Takahiro; Honda, Yuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro
Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 2(4), p.041001_1 - 041001_7, 2016/10
The nuclear heat utilization systems connected to High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) will be designed on the basis of non-nuclear grade standards in terms of the easier entry of chemical plant companies and the construction economics of the systems. Therefore, it is necessary that the reactor operations can be continued even if abnormal events occur in the systems. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed a calculation code to evaluate the absorption of thermal load fluctuations by the reactors when the reactor operations are continued after such events, and has improved the code based on the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) operating data. However, there were insufficient data on the transient temperature behavior of the metallic core side components and the graphite core support structures corresponding to the fluctuation of the reactor inlet coolant temperature for further improvement of the code. Thus, nuclear heat supply fluctuation tests with the HTTR were carried out in non-nuclear heating operation to focus on thermal effect. In the tests, the coolant helium gas temperature was heated up to 120$$^{circ}$$C by the compression heat of the gas circulators in the HTTR, and a sufficiently high fluctuation of 17$$^{circ}$$C by devising a new test procedure was imposed on the reactor inlet coolant under the ideal condition without the effect of the nuclear power. Then, the temperature responses of the metallic core side components and the graphite core support structures were investigated. The test results adequately showed as predicted that the temperature responses of the metallic components are faster than those of the graphite structures, and the mechanism of the thermal load fluctuation absorption by the metallic components was clarified.