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1
Investigation of uncertainty caused by random arrangement of coated fuel particles in HTTR criticality calculations
Ho, H. Q.; Honda, Yuki; Goto, Minoru; Takada, Shoji
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 112, p.42 - 47, 2018/02
Coated fuel particle (CFP) is one of important factors attributing to the inherent safety feature of high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). However, the random arrangement of CFPs makes the simulation more complicated, becoming one of the factors affects the accuracy of the HTTR criticality calculations. In this study, an explicit random model for CFPs arrangement, namely realized random packing (RRP), was developed for the whole core of HTTR using a Monte-Carlo MCNP6 code. The effect of random placement of CFPs was investigated by making a comparison between the RRP and conventional uniform models. The results showed that the RRP model gave a lower excess reactivity than that of the uniform model, and the more number of fuel columns loading into the core, the greater the difference in excess reactivity between the RRP and uniform models. For example, the difference in excess reactivity increased from 0.07 to 0.17%$$Delta$$k/k when the number of fuel column increased from 9 to 30. Regarding the control rods position prediction, the RRP showed the results, which were closer to experiment than the uniform model. In addition, the difference in control rods position between the RRP and uniform models also increases from 12 to 17 mm as increasing number of fuel columns from 19 to 30.
2
Loss of core cooling test with one cooling line inactive in Vessel Cooling System of High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor
Fujiwara, Yusuke; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tochio, Daisuke; Shinohara, Masanori; Ono, Masato; Takada, Shoji
Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 3(4), p.041013_1 - 041013_8, 2017/10
In HTTR, the test was carried out at the reactor thermal power of 9 MW under the condition that one cooling line of VCS was stopped to simulate the partial loss of cooling function from the surface of RPV in addition to the loss of forced cooling flow in the core simulation. The test results showed that temperature change of the core internal structures and the biological shielding concrete was slow during the test. Temperature of RPV decreased several degrees during the test. The temperature decrease of biological shielding made of concrete was within 1$$^{circ}$$C. The numerical result simulating the detail configuration of the cooling tubes of VCS showed that the temperature rise of cooling tubes of VCS was about 15$$^{circ}$$C, which is sufficiently small, which did not significantly affect the temperature of biological shielding concrete. As the results, it was confirmed that the cooling ability of VCS can be kept in case that one cooling line of VCS is lost.
3
Evaluation items to attain safety requirements in fuel and core designs for commercial HTGRs
Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Fukaya, Yuji; Tokuhara, Kazumi; Ohashi, Hirofumi
JAEA-Technology 2017-022, 32 Pages, 2017/09
As for the design of commercial HTGRs, the fuel design, core design, reactor coolant system design, secondary helium system design, decay heat removal system design and confinement system design are very important and quite different from those of LWRs. To contribute the establishment of the safety standards for commercial HTGRs, the evaluation items to attain safety requirements in fuel and core designs were studied. In this study, the excellence features of HTGRs based on passive safety or inherent safety were fully reflected. Additionally, concerning the core design, the stability to spatial power oscillation in reactor core of HTGR was studied. The evaluation items as the result of the study are applicable to the safety design of commercial HTGRs in the future.
4
Assessment report on research and development activities in FY2016; Activity "Research and development on high temperature gas-cooled reactor and related heat application technology" (Interim report)
Tatematsu, Kenji; Nishihara, Tetsuo
JAEA-Evaluation 2017-001, 107 Pages, 2017/09
President of Japan Atomic Energy Agency consulted with the "Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor and Related Hydrogen Production Technology" (hereinafter referred to as "Evaluation Committee"), which consists of specialists in the fields of the evaluation subjects of high temperature gas-cooled reactor and related heat application technology, about the relevance of the management and research activities of the HTGR Hydrogen and Heat Application Research Center during the period from April 2015 to March 2017. The assessment of the Evaluation Committee concluded with a score of B for the confirmation of adjustability to the new regulation standard for restarting HTTR and for the development of hydrogen production technology, a score of A for the design of HTTR-GT/H$$_{2}$$ test plant completing all equipment design specification and for the development exceeding the original scope of an oxidation resistant fuel element containing SiC. The Evaluation Committee concluded with a score of A for the overall activity. In addition, the Evaluation Committee recommended that the judgement to move to the construction phase of the HTTR-GT/H$$_{2}$$ test plant be made after 3-4 years, after the HTTR will be restarted and the thermal load fluctuation tests using HTTR will be carried out. This report lists the members of the Evaluation Committee and outlines the method and procedure of the assessment. The assessment report by the Evaluation Committee is attached.
5
System analysis for HTTR-GT/H$$_{2}$$ plant; Safety analysis of HTTR for coupling helium gas turbine and H$$_{2}$$ plant
Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, X.; Ohashi, Hirofumi
JAEA-Technology 2017-020, 23 Pages, 2017/08
JAEA initiated a nuclear cogeneration demonstration project with helium gas turbine power generation and thermochemical hydrogen production utilizing the HTTR. This study carries out system analysis for the HTTR gas turbine hydrogen cogeneration test plant. The evaluation was conducted for the events newly identified corresponding to the coupling of helium gas turbine and hydrogen production plant to the HTTR. The results showed that loss of load event does not have impact on temperature of fuel and reactor coolant pressure boundary. In addition, reactor coolant pressure does not exceed the evaluation criteria. Furthermore, it was shown that reactor operation can be maintained against temperature transients induced by abnormal events in hydrogen production plant.
6
Design database of helium gas turbine for HTTR-GT/H$$_{2}$$ test plant (Revised version)
Imai, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, X.
JAEA-Data/Code 2017-011, 39 Pages, 2017/08
This report is the revised version of the report titled "Design Database of Helium Gas Turbine for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor, JAEA-Data/Code 2016-007" reflecting component design and experimental data analysis results for fission product isotope diffusion through the turbine blade alloy conducted in Fiscal Year 2016.
7
Thermal-hydraulic analyses of the High-Temperature engineering Test Reactor for loss of forced cooling at 30% reactor power
Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 106, p.71 - 83, 2017/08
The HTTR, which is the only HTGR having inherent safety features in Japan, conducted a safety demonstration test involving a loss of both reactor reactivity control and core cooling. The paper shows thermal-hydraulics during the LOFC test at an initial power of 30% reactor power (9 MW), when the insertion of all control rods was disabled and all gas circulators were tripped to reduce the coolant flow rate to zero. The analytical results could show that the downstream of forced convection caused by the HPS pushes down the upstream by natural convection in the fuel assemblies; however, the forced convection has little influence on the core thermal-hydraulics without the reactor outlet coolant temperature. As a result, the three-dimensional thermal-phenomena inside the RPV during the LOFC test could be understood qualitatively.
8
Development of security and safety fuel for Pu-burner HTGR, 5; Test and characterization for ZrC coating
Ueta, Shohei; Aihara, Jun; Goto, Minoru; Tachibana, Yukio; Okamoto, Koji*
Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-25) (CD-ROM), 4 Pages, 2017/07
To develop the security and safety fuel (3S-TRISO fuel) for Pu-burner high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), R&D on zirconium carbide (ZrC) directly coated on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been started in the Japanese fiscal year 2015. As results of the direct coating test of ZrC on the dummy YSZ particle, ZrC layers with 18 - 21 microns of thicknesses have been obtained with 0.1 kg of particle loading weight. No deterioration of YSZ exposed by source gases of ZrC bromide process was observed by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM).
9
Uncertainty analysis for source term evaluation of high temperature gas-cooled reactor under accident conditions; Identification of influencing factors in loss-of-forced circulation accidents
Honda, Yuki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi
Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-25) (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2017/07
There is growing interest in uncertainty analysis for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Our target is the uncertainty analysis method development for depressurized loss-of-forced circulation (DLOFC) accident with failure of control rod systems (CRS). As one of key elements, this paper focuses on the quantification of uncertainty for the fuel temperature which is dominant for a source term analysis. As an initial step, this paper aims to suggest a procedure to identify influencing factors which is input parameter for uncertainty analysis, and shows the results of derivation of variable parameters by expansion of dynamic equation and extraction of uncertainties in variable factors.
10
Applicability confirmation test of optimum decay heat evaluation method for HTGR with HTTR (Non-nuclear heating test); Validation of residual heat evaluation model
Honda, Yuki; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shoichi; Aono, Tetsuya; Shibata, Taiju; Ishitsuka, Etsuo
JAEA-Technology 2017-013, 20 Pages, 2017/06
Decay heat is one of an important factor for a safety evaluation of depressurized loss-of-forced cooling accident, a representative high consequence accident, in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Traditionally, a conservative decay heat curve is used for safety analysis according to the regulatory standards. On the other hand, there is growing interest in obtaining test data related to decay heat for the use of uncertainty analysis. However, such data has not been obtained for prismatic-type HTGR. Therefore, we have launched a test program to obtain the decay heat data from the HTTR. As an initial step, an applicability confirmation test of decay heat evaluation method for HTGR was conducted in February 2017 without non-nuclear heating condition. This report introduces an estimation method for the decay heat based on test data using HTTR and shows the results of validation of the reactor residual heat evaluation method which will be used to obtain the decay heat data based on test data.
11
Development of temperature measurement technology for control rod using melt wire in High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)
Hamamoto, Shimpei; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Ishii, Toshiaki; Yanagida, Yoshinori
JAEA-Technology 2017-012, 20 Pages, 2017/06
A melt wire was installed at the tip of the control rod in order to measure the temperature of High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). After experience with reactor scram from the state of reactor power 100%, the melt wire was taken out from the control rod and appearance has been observed visually. In this study, an exclusive device for taking out the melt wire was prepared. The take-out device functions as expected, and the melt wire was safely and reliably taken out using a remote manipulator. And because the visual observation of the melt wire was clearly carried out, we were successful in developing the control rod temperature measurement technology. It was confirmed that the melt wires with a melting point of 505$$^{circ}$$C or less were melted, and the melt wires with a melting point of 651$$^{circ}$$C or more were not melted. Therefore, it was found that the highest arrival temperature of tip of the control rods where the melt wires are installed reaches within the range of 505 to 651$$^{circ}$$C. And it was found that the control rod temperature at the time of reactor scram does not exceed the using temperature criteria (900$$^{circ}$$C) of Alloy 800H of the control rod sleeve.
12
Design approach for mitigation of air ingress in high temperature gas-cooled reactor
Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Shigeaki
Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 4(3), p.16-00495_1 - 16-00495_11, 2017/06
This paper intends to propose a practical solution to protect the HTR from severe oxidation against air ingress accidents without reliance on subsystems. Firstly, a change is made to the center reflector structure to minimize temperature difference during the accident condition in order to reduce buoyancy-driven natural circulation in the reactor. Secondly, a modified structure of the upper reflector is suggested to prevent massive air ingress against a rupture in standpipes. As a preliminary study, a numerical analysis is performed for a typical prismatic-type HTGR. The results showed that amount of air ingress into the reactor can be significantly reduced with practical changes to local structure in the reactor.
13
Numerical investigation of the random arrangement effect of coated fuel particles on the criticality of HTTR fuel compact using MCNP6
Ho, H. Q.; Honda, Yuki; Goto, Minoru; Takada, Shoji
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 103, p.114 - 121, 2017/05
This study investigated the random arrangement effect of Coated Fuel Particle (CFP) on criticality of the fuel compact of High-Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). A utility program coupling with MCNP6, namely Realized Random Packing (RRP), was developed to model a random arrangement of the CFPs explicitly for the specified fuel compact of HTTR. The criticality and neutronic calculations for pin cell model were performed by using the Monte Carlo MCNP6 code with an ENDF/B-VII.1 neutron library data. First, the reliability of the RRP model was confirmed by an insignificant variance of the infinite multiplication factor (k$$_{rm inf}$$) among 10 differently random arrangements of the CFPs. Next, the criticality of RRP model was compared with those of Non-truncated Uniform Packing (NUP) model and On-the-fly Random Packing (ORP) model which is a stochastic geometry capability in MCNP6. The results indicated that there was no substantial difference between the NUP and ORP models. However, the RRP model presented a lower k$$_{rm inf}$$ of about 0.32-0.52%$$Delta$$k/k than the NUP model. In additions, the difference of k$$_{rm inf}$$ could be increased as the uranium enrichment decreases. The investigation of the 4-factor formula showed that the difference of k$$_{rm inf}$$ was predominantly given by the resonance escape probability, with the RRP model showing the smallest value.
14
Current R&D status of thermochemical water splitting iodine-sulfur process in Japan Atomic Energy Agency
Kasahara, Seiji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Takegami, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Onuki, Kaoru; Kubo, Shinji
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42(19), p.13477 - 13485, 2017/05
 Percentile:100(Chemistry, Physical)
Current R&D on the thermochemical water splitting iodine-sulfur (IS) process in Japan Atomic Energy Agency is summarized. Reactors were fabricated with industrial materials and verified by test operations: a Bunsen reactor, a H$$_{2}$$SO$$_{2}$$ decomposer, and a HI decomposer. Reactors of industrial materials showed corrosion stability. Demonstration of the test facility verified integrity of process components and stability of hydrogen production. An 8 hours continuous operation of the total IS process was performed in February 2016 with H$$_{2}$$ production rate of 10 L/h.
15
Probabilistic risk assessment method development for high temperature gas-cooled reactors, 4; Use of operational and maintenance experiences with the high temperature engineering test reactor
Shimizu, Atsushi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2017/04
Present paper provides an approach to update PRA parameters using the operational and maintenance experience obtained from the HTTR. Firstly, components subject to investigation are selected with the following criteria; The component has safety function in commercial HTGR, the component is utilized in high temperature-irradiated condition, structure or mechanism of the action for the component is unique, and the component is installed in the HTTR. Secondly, component boundaries are clarified and raw data is collected from maintenance records, monthly surveillance test records, operation and maintenance database, etc. As a preliminary study, selected PRA parameters are updated using Bayesian methods to confirm the effectiveness of the use of the HTTR experience. The results showed that the use of HTTR operational and maintenance data is effective for HTGR reliability database development.
16
Probabilistic risk assessment method development for high temperature gas-cooled reactors, 1; Project overviews
Sato, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Akemi; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Muramatsu, Ken*; Muta, Hitoshi*; Itoi, Tatsuya*; Takada, Tsuyoshi*; Hida, Takenori*; Tanabe, Masayuki*; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi*; et al.
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2017/04
JAEA, in conjunction with Tokyo City University, The University of Tokyo and JGC Corporation, have started development of a PRA method considering the safety and design features of HTGR. The primary objective of the project is to develop a seismic PRA method which enables to provide a reasonably complete identification of accident scenario including a loss of safety function in passive system, structure and components. In addition, we aim to develop a basis for guidance to implement the PRA. This paper provides the overview of the activities including development of a system analysis method for multiple failures, a component failure data using the operation and maintenance experience in the HTTR, seismic fragility evaluation method, and mechanistic source term evaluation method considering failures in core graphite components and reactor building.
17
Benchmark study on realized random packing model for coated fuel particles of HTTR using MCNP6
Ho, H. Q.; Morita, Keisuke*; Honda, Yuki; Fujimoto, Nozomu*; Takada, Shoji
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2017/04
The Coated Fuel Particle plays an important role in the excellent safety feature of the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor. However, the random distribution of CFPs also makes the simulation of HTGR fuel become more complicated. The Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code is one of the most well-known codes for validation of nuclear systems; unfortunately, it does not provide an appropriate function to model a statistical geometry explicitly. In order to deal with the stochastic media, a utility program for the random model, namely Realized Random Packing (RRP), has been developed particularly for High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). This utility program creates a number of random points in an annular geometry. Then, these random points will be used as the center coordinate of CFPs in the MCNP6 input file and therefore the actual random arrangement of CFPs can be simulated explicitly. First, a pin-cell calculation was carried out to validate the RRP by comparing with Statistical Geometry (STG) model of MVP code. After that, the comparison between the RRP model (MCNP) and STG model (MVP) was shown in whole core criticality calculation, not only for the annular core but also for the fully-loaded core. The comparison of numerical results showed that the RRP model and STG model differed insignificantly in the multiplication factor as expected, regardless of the pin-cell or whole core calculations. In addition, the RRP model did not make the calculation time increase a lot in comparison with the conventional regular model (uniform arrangement).
18
Measurement of temperature response of intermediate heat exchanger in heat application system abnormal simulating test using HTTR
Ono, Masato; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Honda, Yuki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Tochio, Daisuke; Homma, Fumitaka; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Takada, Shoji
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (DVD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2017/04
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has carried out research and developments towards nuclear heat utilization of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) using High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The nuclear heat utilization systems connected to HTGR will be designed on the basis of non-nuclear-grade standards in terms of easier entry for the chemical plant companies and the construction economics of the systems. Therefore, it is necessary that the reactor operations continue even if abnormal events occur in the systems. Heat application system abnormal simulating test with HTTR was carried out in non-nuclear heating operation to focus on the thermal effect in order to obtain data of the transient temperature behavior of the metallic components in the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX). The IHX is the key components to connect the HTTR with the heat application system. In the test, the coolant helium gas temperature was heated up to 120$$^{circ}$$C by the compression heat of the gas circulators in the HTTR under the ideal condition to focus on the heat transfer. The tests were conducted by decreasing the helium gas temperature stepwise by increasing the mass flow rate to the air cooler. The temperature responses of the IHX were investigated. For the components such as the heat transfer tubes and heat transfer enhancement plates of IHX, the temperature response was slower in the lower position in comparison with the higher position. The reason is considered that thermal load fluctuation is imposed in the secondary helium gas which flows from the top to the bottom in the heat transfer tubes of the IHX. The test data are useful to verify the numerical model of the safety evaluation code.
19
Probabilistic risk assessment method development for high temperature gas-cooled reactor, 5; Accident progression analysis
Honda, Yuki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2017/04
We have been conducting a source term evaluation method development for high temperature gas-cooled reactors considering structural failures in the major components. This paper present the results of transient analysis for depressurized loss-of-forced cooling accident with ruptures of the cross cut ducts and standpipe, which may be initiated by earthquake. The sequences accounts failures of mitigation systems such as core heat removal by Vessel Cooling System (VCS) and reactor shut down by control rod systems. We will show the effect of mitigation system failure to depressurized loss-of-forced cooling accident in the view point of fuel temperature and natural circulation flow rate which is important for source term evaluation. The major findings obtained in this study showed that multiple failures in mitigation systems for a representative HTGR plant do not aggravate the accident. The result demonstrated that a simplification of event sequence analysis and source term analysis can be achieved with a design fully utilizing the safety characteristics of HTGR.
20
Study of the reduction method of the helium gas leakage from bolted gasket flanged connection for HTGRs
Hamamoto, Shimpei; Takada, Shoji
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (DVD-ROM), 4 Pages, 2017/04
High temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) use helium as coolant. Because helium tends to leak, welding is often used for joints of pipes and containers. However, the bolt fastening flange is useful for enhancing the maintainability of the industrial plant. If the helium leak characteristic of the bolt fastening flange is clarified and the factor that reduces the leakage of helium can be controlled, it can lead to the reduction of the leak rate of helium. In this study, it was clarified that the temperature difference between the flange surfaces strongly influences the helium leak rate from the flange by experiment using Helium Gas Circulator installed in High Temperature engineering Test Reactor. We also demonstrated that helium leak can be reduced by using this correlation by controlling the flange temperature.